The relationship between dissociable components of autobiographical memory (e.g. semantic personality traits, episodic memory retrieval) and other cognitive skills that are proposed to enable one to develop a sense of self (e.g. introspection) have not previously been explored for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study compared autobiographical memory (semantic and episodic) and knowledge of self (internal/external self-knowledge and introspection/mentalizing abilities) in children (aged 11-18 years) with high-functioning ASD and typically developing controls (Total N = 48). Novel and standard tasks were employed. Compared to typically developing controls, young people with ASD had autobiographical memory difficulties that were characterised by a reduction in the retrieval of semantic personality traits, with more initial prompts required to facilitate episodic memory retrieval and fewer episodic memories containing emotional and sensory information. Knowledge of the self and others was also impaired, with reduced introspection and poorer mentalizing abilities. Young people with ASD were also identified as presenting with an atypical relationship between autobiographical memory and self-knowledge, which was significantly different from typically developing controls. Test performance is discussed in relation to the functions of autobiographical memory, with consideration of how these cognitive difficulties may contribute to clinical practices and the social and behavioural characteristics of ASD.