Partially-indirect Bimanual Input with Gaze, Pen, and Touch for Pan, Zoom, and Ink Interaction

Ken Pfeuffer, Jason Alexander, Hans Gellersen

Research output: Chapter or section in a book/report/conference proceedingChapter in a published conference proceeding

16 Citations (SciVal)
31 Downloads (Pure)


Bimanual pen and touch UIs are mainly based on the direct manipulation paradigm. Alternatively we propose partially- indirect bimanual input, where direct pen input is used with the dominant hand, and indirect-touch input with the non-dominant hand. As direct and indirect inputs do not overlap, users can interact in the same space without interference. We investigate two indirect-touch techniques combined with direct pen input: the first redirects touches to the user’s gaze position, and the second redirects touches to the pen position. In this paper, we present an empirical user study where we compare both partially-indirect techniques to direct pen and touch input in bimanual pan, zoom, and ink tasks. Our experimental results show that users are comparatively fast with the indirect techniques, but more accurate as users can dynamically change the zoom-target during indirect zoom gestures. Further our studies reveal that direct and indirect zoom gestures have distinct characteristics regarding spatial use, gestural use, and bimanual parallelism.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCHI '16 Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Number of pages12
ISBN (Print)9781450333627
Publication statusPublished - 7 May 2016


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