The potential for changes in environmental extremes is routinely investigated by fitting change-permitting extreme value models to long-term observations, allowing one or more distribution parameters to change as a function of time or some other covariate. In most extreme value analyses, the main quantity of interest is typically the upper quantiles of the distribution, which are often needed for practical applications such as engineering design. This study focuses on the changes in quantile estimates under different change-permitting models. First, metrics which measure the impact of changes in parameters on changes in quantiles are introduced. The mathematical structure of these change metrics is investigated for several change-permitting models based on the Generalised Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. It is shown that for the most commonly used models, the predicted changes in the quantiles are a non-intuitive function of the distribution parameters, leading to results which are difficult to interpret. Next, it is posited that commonly used change-permitting GEV models do not preserve a constant coefficient of variation, a property that is typically assumed to hold for environmental extremes. To address these shortcomings a new (parsimonious) model is proposed: the model assumes a constant coefficient of variation, allowing the location and scale parameters to change simultaneously. The proposed model results in changes in the quantile function that are easier to interpret. Finally, the consequences of the different modelling choices on quantile estimates are exemplified using a dataset of extreme peak river flow measurements in Massachusetts, USA. It is argued that the decision on which model structure to adopt to describe change in extremes should also take into consideration any requirements on the behaviour of the quantiles of interest.
|Journal||Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment|
|Early online date||10 Dec 2020|
|Publication status||Published - 28 Feb 2021|