Oxidation of copper electrodes on flexible polyimide substrates for non-enzymatic glucose sensing

Shijia Liu, Ayse Ay, Qiaochu Luo, Xiangqi Hu, Katarzyna Białas, Gorachand Dutta, Despina Moschou, Anna Regoutz

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2 Citations (SciVal)


The integration of non-enzymatic glucose sensing entities into device designs compatible with industrial production is crucial for the broad take-up of non-invasive glucose sensors. Copper and its oxides have proven to be promising candidates for electrochemical glucose sensing. They can be fabricated in situ enabling integration with standard copper metallisation schemes for example in printed circuit boards (PCBs). Here, copper oxide electrodes are prepared on flexible polyimide substrates through direct annealing of patterned electrode structures. Both annealing temperature and duration are tuned to optimise the sensor surface for optimum glucose detection. A combination of microscopy and spectroscopy techniques is used to follow changes to the surface morphology and chemistry under the varying annealing conditions. The observed physico-chemical electrode characteristics are directly compared with electrochemical testing of the sensing performance, including chronoamperommetry and interference experiments. A clear influence of both aspects on the sensing behaviour is observed and an anneal at 250 °C for 8 h is identified as the best compromise between sensor performance and low interference from competing analytes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number045010
JournalMaterials Research Express
Issue number4
Early online date27 Apr 2022
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
QL thanks AR for the opportunity to undertake an undergraduate research opportunities programme (UROP) in her group. XH thanks Imperial College London for her undergraduate research opportunities programme (UROP) bursary. GD, AR and DM acknowledge financial support of British Council (Newton Fund Institutional Links, UK-Turkey project: 336 872). DM acknowledges financial support from her Royal Academy of Engineering Industrial Fellowship IF2021//101. AR acknowledges support from the Analytical Chemistry Trust Fund for her CAMS-UK Fellowship and from Imperial College London for her Imperial College Research Fellowship. AA and SL thank Dr Ahu Parry and Dr Gwilherm Kerherve for training and expertise provided for AFM, SEM and XPS.


  • copper oxide
  • glucose sensing
  • non-enzymatic
  • printed circuit boards
  • x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Metals and Alloys


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