Levulinic acid and its esters participate in transfer hydrogenation with a range of secondary alcohols. Reduction of the levulinate leads to cyclisation into a gamma-lactone, thereby acting as an oxidant for alcohols without the need for a large excess of reagents. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wise, N. J., & Williams, J. M. J. (2007). Oxidation of alcohols by transfer hydrogenation: driving the equilibrium with an intramolecular trap. Tetrahedron Letters, 48(21), 3639-3641. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tetlet.2007.03.135