Overgeneral autobiographical memory bias in clinical and non-clinical voice hearers

Pamela Jacobsen, Emmanuelle Peters, Thomas Ward, Philippa A Garety, Mike Jackson, Paul Chadwick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

68 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Hearing voices can be a distressing and disabling experience for some, whilst it is a valued experience for others, so-called 'healthy voice-hearers'. Cognitive models of psychosis highlight the role of memory, appraisal and cognitive biases in determining emotional and behavioural responses to voices. A memory bias potentially associated with distressing voices is the overgeneral memory bias (OGM), namely the tendency to recall a summary of events rather than specific occasions. It may limit access to autobiographical information that could be helpful in re-appraising distressing experiences, including voices.METHODS: We investigated the possible links between OGM and distressing voices in psychosis by comparing three groups: (1) clinical voice-hearers (N = 39), (2) non-clinical voice-hearers (N = 35) and (3) controls without voices (N = 77) on a standard version of the autobiographical memory test (AMT). Clinical and non-clinical voice-hearers also completed a newly adapted version of the task, designed to assess voices-related memories (vAMT).RESULTS: As hypothesised, the clinical group displayed an OGM bias by retrieving fewer specific autobiographical memories on the AMT compared with both the non-clinical and control groups, who did not differ from each other. The clinical group also showed an OGM bias in recall of voice-related memories on the vAMT, compared with the non-clinical group.CONCLUSIONS: Clinical voice-hearers display an OGM bias when compared with non-clinical voice-hearers on both general and voices-specific recall tasks. These findings have implications for the refinement and targeting of psychological interventions for psychosis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113-120
Number of pages8
JournalPsychological Medicine
Volume49
Issue number1
Early online date14 Mar 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jan 2019

    Fingerprint

Keywords

  • Auditory hallucinations
  • autobiographical memory
  • cognitive behavioural therapy
  • psychosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this