Outline Pursuits: Gaze-assisted Selection of Occluded Objects in Virtual Reality

Ludwig Sidenmark, Christopher Clarke, Xuesong Zhang, Jenny Phu, Hans Gellersen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter in a published conference proceeding

10 Citations (SciVal)


In 3D environments, objects can be difficult to select when they overlap, as this affects available target area and increases selection ambiguity. We introduce Outline Pursuits which extends a primary pointing modality for gaze-assisted selection of occluded objects. Candidate targets within a pointing cone are presented with an outline that is traversed by a moving stimulus. This affords completion of the selection by gaze attention to the intended target's outline motion, detected by matching the user's smooth pursuit eye movement. We demonstrate two techniques implemented based on the concept, one with a controller as the primary pointer, and one in which Outline Pursuits are combined with head pointing for hands-free selection. Compared with conventional raycasting, the techniques require less movement for selection as users do not need to reposition themselves for a better line of sight, and selection time and accuracy are less affected when targets become highly occluded.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCHI '20: Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Number of pages13
ISBN (Print)9781450367080
Publication statusPublished - 23 Apr 2020


  • Virtual reality
  • Smooth pursuits
  • Eye tracking
  • Occlusion


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