If carbon fibre layers are prevented from slipping over one another as they consolidate onto a non-trivial geometry, they can be particularly susceptible to wrinkling/buckling instabilities. A one dimensional model for out-of-plane ply wrinkling during consolidation over an external radius is presented. Critical conditions for the appearance of wrinkles provide manufacturing strategies to eliminate such defects. Predicted wrinkle wavelengths and critical wrinkling conditions show good agreement with wrinkle defects observed in a spar demonstrator.
- layered structures