This paper identifies the interrelationship between the nature of knowledge assets (inputs), HR practices and types of organisational learning (outputs) in Professional Service Firms (PSFs). First, we draw on a theoretical framework which includes both exploitive and explorative learning and is appreciative of the time-dimensions within which PSFs operate (accelerated-planned). This juxtaposition identifies four learning orientations. Second, we conduct a thematic analysis of multiple case study data to identify the properties of the dominant knowledge assets and the HR practices that underpin each learning orientation. Finally, we highlight the HR approaches to managing the tensions which arise when exploitive and explorative learning are combined.