Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids and antioxidants from Vernonia amygdalina leaf using response surface methodology

Oluwaseun Ruth Alara, Nour Hamid Abdurahman, Olusegun Abayomi Olalere

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134 Citations (SciVal)

Abstract

In this study, the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) variables were optimized using a face-centered central composite design of response surface methodology for optimal recoveries of total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant capacities (DPPH and ABTS) of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract. The independent variables were irradiation time (5–15 min), microwave power level (400–600 W), temperature (90–110 °C), and feed-to-solvent ratio (0.08–0.13 g/ml). The ANOVA results showed that TFC, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were significantly (p < 0.0001) affected by irradiation time, microwave power level and feed-to-solvent ratio, indicating a good agreement between the experimental and predicted values. The optimal conditions for maximum recoveries of TFC (87.05 ± 1.03 mg QE/g d.w. (n = 3)) and antioxidant capacities (DPPH scavenging of 94.05 ± 1.03% (n = 3), and ABTS scavenging of 95.93 ± 0.99% (n = 3)) were 7 min of irradiation time, 416 W of microwave power level, 100 °C of temperature, and 0.10 g/ml of feed-to-solvent ratio. More so, the optimized extract from MAE was compared with that of Soxhlet extraction technique, the extract from MAE possesses a high capacity of inhibiting antioxidants. Likewise, more chemical components from the GC–MS analysis were identified for the extract from MAE.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)36-48
Number of pages13
JournalFood and Bioproducts Processing
Volume107
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors appreciate the financial support of Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia under the UMP soft grant ( RDU160325 ).

Keywords

  • Antioxidant
  • Extraction
  • Flavonoid
  • GC–MS analysis
  • Response surface methodology
  • Vernonia amygdalina leaf

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Biochemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering

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