Online Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Extreme Learning Machine Applied to 3D Path Following for Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicles

Adrian Rubio-Solis, Uriel Martinez Hernandez, Luciano Nava-Balanzar, Luis Garcia-Valdovinos, Noe Rodriguez-Olivares, Juan Orozco-Muniz, Tomas Salgado-Jimenez

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In marine missions that involve 3D path following tasks, the overall goal of Underwater Vehicles (UVs) is the successful completion of a path previously specified by the operator. This implies that the path must be followed by the UV as closely as possible and arrive at a location for collection by a vessel. In this paper, an Online Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Extreme Learning Machine (OIT2-FELM) is suggested to achieve a robust following behaviour along a predefined 3D path using a Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicle (ROV). The proposed machine is a fast sequential learning scheme to the training of a more generalised model of TSK Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Inference Systems (TSK IT2 FISs) equivalent to Single Layer Feedforward Neural Networks (SLFNs). Learning new input data in the OIT2-FELM can be done one-by-one or chunk-by-chunk with a fixed or varying size. The OIT2-FELM is implemented in a hierarchical navigation strategy (HNS) as the main guidance mechanism to infer local control motions and to provide the ROV with the necessary autonomy to complete a predefined 3D path. For local path-planning, the OIT2-FELM performs signal classification for obstacle avoidance and target detection based on data collected by an on-board scan sonar. To evaluate the performance of the proposed OIT2-FELM, two different experiments are suggested. First, a number of benchmark problems in the field of non-linear system identification, regression and classification problems are used. Secondly, a number of experiments to the completion of a predefined 3D path using an ROV is implemented. Compared to other fuzzy strategies, the OIT2-FELM offered two significant capabilities. On the one hand, the OIT2-FELM provides a better treatment of uncertainty and noisy signals in underwater environments while improving the ROV's performance. Secondly, online learning in OIT2-FELM allows continuous knowledge discovery from survey data to infer the surroundings of the ROV. Experiment results to the completion of 3D paths show the effectiveness of the proposed approach to handle uncertainty and produce reasonable classification predictions (∼90.5% accuracy in testing data).

Original languageEnglish
Article number108054
JournalApplied Soft Computing
Early online date19 Nov 2021
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to thank to the national programme ‘Catedras CONACYT-Mexico , project number 475’ for its financial support, and to the Center for Engineering and Industrial Development, CIDESI Mexico , for providing the material and robotic platform necessary to complete the experiments.


  • Extreme Learning Machine
  • Hierarchical fuzzy behaviours
  • Neural networks
  • Online interval type-2 fuzzy learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software


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