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The simultaneous monitoring of multi-physical signals is essential for future sensor systems, but is currently only realized by integrating a variety of sensor types into a single device. However, the ability to use a single sensor structure that shares common electrodes can provide a route to multi-functional sensing while also decreasing device size and increasing spatial resolution. Here we report a ferroelectric barium titanate film-based multi-effect coupled nanogenerator for scavenging light, mechanical, and thermal energies to realize a self-powered multi-functional coupled sensor system without using any external power source. The coupled nanogenerator exhibits a strong coupling enhancement with detection sensitivities of 0.42 nA/(mW/cm2) during illumination by 405 nm light, 1.43 nA/kPa for pressure detection, and −8.85 nA/K for temperature sensing, where both the light and pressure sensing performances have the highest sensitivities during a cooling temperature variation of ~19.5 K and the largest temperature detection sensitivity can be achieved during strong light illumination of 83.2 mW/cm2. Moreover, the coupled nanogenerator array can be integrated into flexible forms for tactile pressure, temperature, and light sensors, and enabling coupled sensing for the development of electronic skins.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104632
JournalNano Energy
Early online date20 Feb 2020
Publication statusPublished - 31 May 2020


  • Electronic skin
  • Photovoltaic effect
  • Piezoelectric effect
  • Pyroelectric effect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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