The recent reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) urge for the reconceptualization of our design of the urban built environments. However, current efforts to integrate urban environmental assessment into practice in Egypt are proving insufficient. This paper utilises the Ladybug tools simulation plugins to investigate the impact of changing the morphological characteristics of three block typologies (scattered, linear and courtyard) and their associated parameters to understand their multidimensional relationship with environmental conditions, outdoor thermal comfort and energy use intensity. This study based in Cairo, Egypt, considers 3430 hypothetical geometrical configurations comprising of a variety of design parameters and indicators. The results show a strong correlation between the design parameters and the combined performance of thermal comfort and energy consumption (R 2 = 0.84), with urban density having the strongest impact on both thermal comfort and energy use (R2 = 0.7 and 0.95, respectively). The design parameters exhibited a consistent impact on the different typologies, albeit with varying magnitude. Compact and medium-density urban forms are shown to elicit the best overall performance, especially for ordinal orientations (e.g., ~45°) across all typologies. Compact high-density scattered forms are favoured when considering thermal comfort, while courtyards outperform other typologies when considering energy efficiency and overall performance.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
Issue number4026
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jul 2021


  • Grasshopper
  • Ladybug tools
  • optimisation
  • urban typologies
  • outdoor thermal comfort
  • UTCI
  • energy loads
  • EUI


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