Occurrence of acidic pharmaceuticals in the Warta River in Poland

Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, A Dabrowska, N Vieno, L Kronberg, J Nawrocki

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25 Citations (SciVal)


The occurrence of five acidic pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, diclofenac, bezafibrate and clofibric acid) in the Warta River in Poland has been discussed. A significant effect of the effluents of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) on the quality of recipient water has been shown. Diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, and ketoprofen were found in all samples collected along the Warta River at average concentrations of several jig L-1. Average concentration of the above pharmaceuticals in raw sewage entering wastewater plants was at the level of a few mu g L-1. The efficiency of pharmaceuticals' removal from the raw sewage was very high and reached 97 - 100%. Diclofenac was the only compound, which exhibited a significant resistance towards the treatment (< 65%), and accordingly its concentration in the recipient water was the highest. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was use for separation of pharmaceuticals from the water phase and HPLC - ESI - MS/MS system was applied for the analysis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)289-303
Number of pages15
JournalChemia Analityczna
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2008


  • residues
  • drugs
  • SPE
  • tandem mass-spectrometry
  • removal of pharmaceuticals
  • risk-assessment
  • sewage-treatment plants
  • waste-water
  • performance liquid-chromatography
  • pharmaceutical analysis
  • acidic pharmaceuticals
  • active compounds
  • receiving waters
  • aquatic environment
  • wastewater treatment plants
  • HPLC - ESI - MS/MS


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