Observations of Typhoon Generated Gravity Waves From the CIPS and AIRS Instruments and Comparison to the High-Resolution ECMWF Model

Chihoko Y. Cullens, Brentha Thurairajah, Scott L. England, Cora E. Randall, Jia Yue, Corwin Wright

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The satellite-based Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observed concentric gravity waves (GWs) generated by Typhoon Yutu in late October 2018. This work compares CIPS and AIRS nadir viewing observations of GWs at altitudes of 50–55 and 30–40 km, respectively, to simulations from the high-resolution European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting Integrated Forecasting System (ECMWF-IFS) and ECMWF reanalysis v5 (ERA5). Both ECMWF-IFS with 9 km and ERA5 with 31 km horizontal resolution show concentric GWs at similar locations and timing as the AIRS and CIPS observations. The GW wavelengths are ∼225–236 km in ECMWF-IFS simulations, which compares well with the wavelength inferred from the observations. After validation of ECMWF GWs, five category five typhoon events during 2018 are analyzed using ECMWF to obtain characteristics of concentric GWs in the Western Pacific regions. The amplitudes of GWs in the stratosphere are not strongly correlated with the strength of typhoons, but are controlled by background wind conditions. Our results confirm that amplitudes and shapes of concentric GWs observed in the stratosphere and lowermost mesosphere are heavily influenced by the background wind conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2022JD038170
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Issue number13
Early online date14 Jun 2023
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank Dr. Justin Carstens for the CIPS GW retrievals. AIM is funded by the NASA Small Explorer program. AIRS GW data are produced by Dr. Lars Hoffmann. CYC was supported by NSF AGS Award 2217461 and NASA Heliophysics Supporting Research (80NSSC22K0895) and NASA ECIP (80NSSC22K0726). CER was supported by AIM, the NASA DRIVE program (80NSSC20K0628) and the NASA Heliophysics Guest Investigator program (80NSSC18K0775). BT was supported by NASA/AIM. CJW is supported by Royal Society University Research Fellowship URF\R\221023 and NERC Grant NE/S00985X/1.


  • AIRS
  • CIPS
  • gravity wave
  • typhoon

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)


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