Numerical simulations of water waves generated by subaerial granular and solid-block landslides: validation, comparison, and predictive equations

Ramtin Sabeti, Mohammad Heidarzadeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We compare waves generated by subaerial solid-block and granular landslides and propose equations for predicting their maximum initial wave amplitudes. The recent Anak Krakatau subaerial landslide tsunami in December 2018, which resulted in more than 450 deaths, demonstrated the knowledge gap on this subject and motivated this study. Here, we make numerical models using the numerical package FLOW3D-Hydro for solid-block and granular landslides and validate them using physical experiments. Results indicate that the maximum initial wave amplitudes generated by solid-block landslides are 107% larger than those generated by granular landslides in our experiments. The relationship between maximum initial wave amplitude and slope angle is inverse for solid-block slides whereas, it is direct for granular slides. However, a critical angle of 60o is achieved for granular slides, and for slope angles more than this critical value, the maximum wave amplitudes start to decrease. Regarding wave period, our results show that it remains nearly unchanged for both types of landslides as water depth and slide volume vary. The period generated by solid-block slides increases as the slope angle decreases; however, it remains unchanged for granular slides. The predictive equations are applied to real landslide tsunamis and resulted in satisfactory performances.
Original languageEnglish
JournalOcean Engineering
Publication statusAcceptance date - 8 Oct 2022

Keywords

  • Tsunami
  • Landslide
  • Physical modeling
  • Coastal Engineering
  • ocean engineering
  • Hydraulic Engineering

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