We study the emerging large-scale structures in networks subject to selective pressures that simultaneously drive toward higher modularity and robustness against random failures. We construct maximum-entropy null models that isolate the effects of the joint optimization on the network structure from any kind of evolutionary dynamics. Our analysis reveals a rich phase diagram of optimized structures, composed of many combinations of modular, core-periphery, and bipartite patterns. Furthermore, we observe parameter regions where the simultaneous optimization can be either synergistic or antagonistic, with the improvement of one criterion directly aiding or hindering the other, respectively. Our results show how interactions between different selective pressures can be pivotal in determining the emerging network structure, and that these interactions can be captured by simple network models.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Statistics and Probability
- Condensed Matter Physics