Normal and reverse storm surges along the coast of Florida during the September 2022 Hurricane Ian: Observations, analysis, and modelling

Mohammad Heidarzadeh, Takumu Iwamoto, Jadranka Šepić, Iyan E. Mulia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (SciVal)

Abstract

The September 2022 Hurricane Ian was among the most destructive hurricanes to hit the US coasts. Ian was one of the rare events that produced both positive (normal) and negative (reverse) surges. We analyse and model the generation mechanism of these surges through studying sea level, air pressure, and wind observations as well as numerical modelling. Analysis of a rich observation dataset helped us to explain their simultaneous generations for the first time. Among the examined data, maximum wind speed was 50–60 m/s and the minimum air pressure was 961.6 hPa. Although three factors of wind, pressure drop, and geometry contribute to surge generation, we found that wind was the dominant factor. Despite the opposing impacts of pressure drop and wind on reverse surge generation, the amplitudes of reverse surges (2.4 m) were larger than those of normal surges (over 1.8 m). Normal and reverse surges were consistently generated by landward and seaward winds, respectively. Reverse surges occurred at parts of the coast under seaward wind that experienced less intensive pressure drop. We successfully modelled both normal and reverse surges. Our model can be employed for forecasting unique storm surges such as those generated during Hurricane Ian.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102250
Number of pages17
JournalOcean Modelling
Volume185
Early online date27 Jul 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We are sincerely grateful to staff at the Tides & Currents NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the United States) portal and the ASOS (the Automated Surface Observing System) network for maintaining and providing the data used in this study. In particular, we acknowledge the great efforts by the NOAA scientist, Stuart Weinstein, for preparing the tide gauge data of this study. A number of figures were drafted using the GMT software (Wessel and Smith, 1998). The authors are grateful to the Associate Editor (Professor Yusuke Uchiyama) and two anonymous reviewers for their constructive review comments. All co-authors have read the final manuscript and commented on it. We acknowledge University of Bath Institutional Open Access Fund, UK. Work of Jadranka Šepić was supported by the ERC-StG-853045 SHExtreme and the Croatian Science FoundationIP-2019-04-5875 StVar-Adri projects.

Funding Information:
We acknowledge University of Bath Institutional Open Access Fund, UK . Work of Jadranka Šepić was supported by the ERC-StG-853045 SHExtreme and the Croatian Science Foundation IP-2019-04-5875 StVar-Adri projects.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s)

Keywords

  • Atmosphere
  • Caribbean Sea
  • Florida
  • Hurricane
  • Numerical modelling
  • Sea level data
  • Storm surge

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Oceanography
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Atmospheric Science

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