Norms are utilised in agent societies to encourage acceptable behaviour by the participating agents. They can be established or revised from the top-down (authority) or from the bottom-up (populace).
The study of norm creation from the bottom-up - or norm emergence/convergence - shows evidence of increasing activity. In consequence, we seek to analyse and categorize the approaches proposed in the literature for facilitating norm emergence.
This paper makes three contributions to the study of norm emergence. Firstly, we present the different perspectives of norms and their impact on the norm emergence process, with the aim of comparing their similarities and differences in implementing the norm life cycle. Secondly, we identify the characteristics that support norm emergence that are observed in the emergence literature. Finally, we identify and propose future topics for study for the community, through a discussion of the challenges and opportunities in norm emergence.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)706-749
Number of pages44
JournalAutonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2019


  • Norms
  • Norm emergence
  • Norm convergence
  • Norm life cycle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence


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