Nonprescribed physical activity energy expenditure is maintained with structured exercise and implicates a compensatory increase in energy intake

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Abstract

Background: Exercise interventions elicit only modest weight loss, which might reflect a compensatory reduction in nonprescribed physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE).

Objective: The objective was to investigate whether there is a reduction in nonprescribed PAEE as a result of participation in a 6-mo structured exercise intervention in middle-aged men.

Design: Sedentary male participants [age: 54 ± 5 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 28 ± 3] were randomly assigned to a 6-mo progressive exercise (EX) or control (CON) group. Energy expenditure during structured exercise (prescribed PAEE) and nonprescribed PAEE were determined with the use of synchronized accelerometry and heart rate before the intervention, during the intervention (2, 9, and 18 wk), and within a 2-wk period of detraining after the intervention.

Results: Structured prescribed exercise increased total PAEE and had no detrimental effect on nonprescribed PAEE. Indeed, there was a trend for greater nonprescribed PAEE in the EX group (P = 0.09). Weight loss in the EX group (–1.8 ± 2.2 kg compared with +0.2 ± 2.2 kg in the CON group, P < 0.02) reflected only {approx}40% of the 300–373 kcal/kg body mass potential energy deficit from prescribed exercise. Serum leptin concentration decreased by 24% in the EX group (compared with 3% in the CON group, P < 0.03), and we estimate that this was accompanied by a compensatory increase in energy intake of {approx}100 kcal/d.

Conclusions: The adoption of regular structured exercise in previously sedentary, middle-aged, and overweight men does not result in a negative compensatory reduction in nonprescribed physical activity. The less-than-predicted weight loss is likely to reflect a compensatory increase in energy intake in response to a perceived state of relative energy insufficiency.

LanguageEnglish
Pages1009-1016
Number of pages8
JournalThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume92
Issue number5
Early online date7 Sep 2010
DOIs
StatusPublished - Nov 2010

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Energy Intake
Energy Metabolism
Exercise
Weight Loss
Control Groups
Accelerometry
Leptin

Keywords

  • body mass index
  • energy intake
  • energy metabolism
  • exercise
  • exercise therapy
  • humans
  • leptin
  • male
  • middle aged
  • motor activity
  • overweight
  • sedentary lifestyle
  • weight loss

Cite this

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title = "Nonprescribed physical activity energy expenditure is maintained with structured exercise and implicates a compensatory increase in energy intake",
abstract = "Background: Exercise interventions elicit only modest weight loss, which might reflect a compensatory reduction in nonprescribed physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). Objective: The objective was to investigate whether there is a reduction in nonprescribed PAEE as a result of participation in a 6-mo structured exercise intervention in middle-aged men. Design: Sedentary male participants [age: 54 ± 5 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 28 ± 3] were randomly assigned to a 6-mo progressive exercise (EX) or control (CON) group. Energy expenditure during structured exercise (prescribed PAEE) and nonprescribed PAEE were determined with the use of synchronized accelerometry and heart rate before the intervention, during the intervention (2, 9, and 18 wk), and within a 2-wk period of detraining after the intervention. Results: Structured prescribed exercise increased total PAEE and had no detrimental effect on nonprescribed PAEE. Indeed, there was a trend for greater nonprescribed PAEE in the EX group (P = 0.09). Weight loss in the EX group (–1.8 ± 2.2 kg compared with +0.2 ± 2.2 kg in the CON group, P < 0.02) reflected only {approx}40{\%} of the 300–373 kcal/kg body mass potential energy deficit from prescribed exercise. Serum leptin concentration decreased by 24{\%} in the EX group (compared with 3{\%} in the CON group, P < 0.03), and we estimate that this was accompanied by a compensatory increase in energy intake of {approx}100 kcal/d. Conclusions: The adoption of regular structured exercise in previously sedentary, middle-aged, and overweight men does not result in a negative compensatory reduction in nonprescribed physical activity. The less-than-predicted weight loss is likely to reflect a compensatory increase in energy intake in response to a perceived state of relative energy insufficiency.",
keywords = "body mass index, energy intake, energy metabolism, exercise, exercise therapy, humans, leptin, male, middle aged, motor activity, overweight, sedentary lifestyle, weight loss",
author = "Turner, {J E} and D Markovitch and Betts, {James A} and Dylan Thompson",
year = "2010",
month = "11",
doi = "10.3945/ajcn.2010.29471",
language = "English",
volume = "92",
pages = "1009--1016",
journal = "The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition",
issn = "0002-9165",
publisher = "American Society for Nutrition",
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T1 - Nonprescribed physical activity energy expenditure is maintained with structured exercise and implicates a compensatory increase in energy intake

AU - Turner, J E

AU - Markovitch, D

AU - Betts, James A

AU - Thompson, Dylan

PY - 2010/11

Y1 - 2010/11

N2 - Background: Exercise interventions elicit only modest weight loss, which might reflect a compensatory reduction in nonprescribed physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). Objective: The objective was to investigate whether there is a reduction in nonprescribed PAEE as a result of participation in a 6-mo structured exercise intervention in middle-aged men. Design: Sedentary male participants [age: 54 ± 5 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 28 ± 3] were randomly assigned to a 6-mo progressive exercise (EX) or control (CON) group. Energy expenditure during structured exercise (prescribed PAEE) and nonprescribed PAEE were determined with the use of synchronized accelerometry and heart rate before the intervention, during the intervention (2, 9, and 18 wk), and within a 2-wk period of detraining after the intervention. Results: Structured prescribed exercise increased total PAEE and had no detrimental effect on nonprescribed PAEE. Indeed, there was a trend for greater nonprescribed PAEE in the EX group (P = 0.09). Weight loss in the EX group (–1.8 ± 2.2 kg compared with +0.2 ± 2.2 kg in the CON group, P < 0.02) reflected only {approx}40% of the 300–373 kcal/kg body mass potential energy deficit from prescribed exercise. Serum leptin concentration decreased by 24% in the EX group (compared with 3% in the CON group, P < 0.03), and we estimate that this was accompanied by a compensatory increase in energy intake of {approx}100 kcal/d. Conclusions: The adoption of regular structured exercise in previously sedentary, middle-aged, and overweight men does not result in a negative compensatory reduction in nonprescribed physical activity. The less-than-predicted weight loss is likely to reflect a compensatory increase in energy intake in response to a perceived state of relative energy insufficiency.

AB - Background: Exercise interventions elicit only modest weight loss, which might reflect a compensatory reduction in nonprescribed physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). Objective: The objective was to investigate whether there is a reduction in nonprescribed PAEE as a result of participation in a 6-mo structured exercise intervention in middle-aged men. Design: Sedentary male participants [age: 54 ± 5 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 28 ± 3] were randomly assigned to a 6-mo progressive exercise (EX) or control (CON) group. Energy expenditure during structured exercise (prescribed PAEE) and nonprescribed PAEE were determined with the use of synchronized accelerometry and heart rate before the intervention, during the intervention (2, 9, and 18 wk), and within a 2-wk period of detraining after the intervention. Results: Structured prescribed exercise increased total PAEE and had no detrimental effect on nonprescribed PAEE. Indeed, there was a trend for greater nonprescribed PAEE in the EX group (P = 0.09). Weight loss in the EX group (–1.8 ± 2.2 kg compared with +0.2 ± 2.2 kg in the CON group, P < 0.02) reflected only {approx}40% of the 300–373 kcal/kg body mass potential energy deficit from prescribed exercise. Serum leptin concentration decreased by 24% in the EX group (compared with 3% in the CON group, P < 0.03), and we estimate that this was accompanied by a compensatory increase in energy intake of {approx}100 kcal/d. Conclusions: The adoption of regular structured exercise in previously sedentary, middle-aged, and overweight men does not result in a negative compensatory reduction in nonprescribed physical activity. The less-than-predicted weight loss is likely to reflect a compensatory increase in energy intake in response to a perceived state of relative energy insufficiency.

KW - body mass index

KW - energy intake

KW - energy metabolism

KW - exercise

KW - exercise therapy

KW - humans

KW - leptin

KW - male

KW - middle aged

KW - motor activity

KW - overweight

KW - sedentary lifestyle

KW - weight loss

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T2 - The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

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