### Abstract

The problem of two layers of immiscible fluid, bordered above by an unbounded layer of passive fluid and below by a flat bed, is formulated and discussed. The resulting equations are given by a first-order, four-dimensional system of PDEs of mixed-type. The relevant physical parameters in the problem are presented and used to write the equations in a non-dimensional form. The conservation laws for the problem, which are known to be only six, are explicitly written and discussed in both non- Boussinesq and Boussinesq cases. Both dynamics and nonlinear stability of the Cauchy problem are discussed, with focus on the case where the upper unbounded passive layer has zero density, also called the free surface case. We prove that the stability of a solution depends only on two 'baroclinic' parameters (the shear and the difference of layer thickness, the former being the most important one) and give a precise criterion for the system to be well-posed. It is also numerically shown that the system is nonlinearly unstable, as hyperbolic initial data evolves into the elliptic region before the formation of shocks. We also discuss the use of simple waves as a tool to bound solutions and preventing a hyperbolic initial data to become elliptic and use this idea to give a mathematical proof for the nonlinear instability.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 20190594 |

Journal | Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences |

Volume | 476 |

Issue number | 2236 |

Early online date | 22 Apr 2020 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 29 Apr 2020 |

### Keywords

- Internal waves
- Nonlinear stability
- Waves in fluids

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Mathematics(all)
- Engineering(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)

## Cite this

*Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences*,

*476*(2236), [20190594]. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.2019.0594