New advances in CRISPR/Cas-mediated precise gene-editing techniques

Chris Richardson, Robert N. Kelsh, Rebecca J. Richardson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Citations (SciVal)


Over the past decade, CRISPR/Cas-based gene editing has become a powerful tool for generating mutations in a variety of model organisms, from Escherichia coli to zebrafish, rodents and large mammals. CRISPR/Cas-based gene editing effectively generates insertions or deletions (indels), which allow for rapid gene disruption. However, a large proportion of human genetic diseases are caused by single-base-pair substitutions, which result in more subtle alterations to protein function, and which require more complex and precise editing to recreate in model systems. Precise genome editing (PGE) methods, however, typically have efficiencies of less than a tenth of those that generate less-specific indels, and so there has been a great deal of effort to improve PGE efficiency. Such optimisations include optimal guide RNA and mutation-bearing donor DNA template design, modulation of DNA repair pathways that underpin how edits result from Cas-induced cuts, and the development of Cas9 fusion proteins that introduce edits via alternative mechanisms. In this Review, we provide an overview of the recent progress in optimising PGE methods and their potential for generating models of human genetic disease.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberdmm049874
JournalDisease Models and Mechanisms
Issue number2
Early online date27 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - 27 Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council-funded South West Biosciences Doctoral Training Partnership [training grant reference BB/T008741/1].


  • Base/prime editing
  • CRISPR/Cas
  • HDR
  • Human disease modelling
  • Precise genome editing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Immunology and Microbiology (miscellaneous)
  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology


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