Nanostructured WO3 photoanodes for efficient water splitting via anodisation in citric acid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)
82 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

In this work we report the production of nanostructured WO3 photoanodes for solar water splitting produced via anodisation using for the first time citric acid (CA), a safer and more environmentally friendly alternative to fluoride-based electrolytes. Photoelectrochemical solar water splitting has shown potential as a renewable method for hydrogen production, a key ingredient to advance the de-carbonisation of our economy. Many methods to produce WO3 photoanodes are time-consuming and require high temperatures and/or toxic chemicals, such as fluoride-based electrolytes. Here we report on a systematic investigation of the anodisation of tungsten using CA to establish a relation between (i) anodisation parameters (current, time and electrolyte), (ii) the resulting nanostructured morphology and (iii) its performance as a photoanode for water splitting. Characterisation was carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, linear sweep voltammetry, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. After optimisation, the obtained WO3 photoanodes produced a photocurrent of 0.88 mA cm-2 at 1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl in 0.5 M aqueous H2SO4 under AM1.5 solar irradiation. At low applied potentials (below 0.67 V vs. Ag/AgCl), closer to practical conditions, the photoanodes produced in CA outperformed a conventional counterpart made using a NH4F electrolyte. The CA-anodised photoanodes also showed higher stability, retaining 90% of their activity after 1 h of chopped solar illumination. This work demonstrates the promise of anodisation in citric acid as an efficient and more sustainable method for the production of WO3 photoanodes for solar water splitting.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)35221-35227
Number of pages7
JournalRSC Advances
Volume7
Issue number56
Early online date13 Jul 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Fingerprint

Citric acid
Citric Acid
Electrolytes
Water
Fluorides
Tungsten
Poisons
Ultraviolet visible spectroscopy
Carbonization
Voltammetry
Hydrogen production
Photocurrents
Lighting
Irradiation
X ray diffraction
Scanning electron microscopy
Temperature

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)

Cite this

Nanostructured WO3 photoanodes for efficient water splitting via anodisation in citric acid. / Zhang, Jifang; Salles, Ivette; Pering, Sam; Cameron, Petra J.; Mattia, Davide; Eslava, Salvador.

In: RSC Advances, Vol. 7, No. 56, 2017, p. 35221-35227.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{097086ba15214374991e4305ceac72f0,
title = "Nanostructured WO3 photoanodes for efficient water splitting via anodisation in citric acid",
abstract = "In this work we report the production of nanostructured WO3 photoanodes for solar water splitting produced via anodisation using for the first time citric acid (CA), a safer and more environmentally friendly alternative to fluoride-based electrolytes. Photoelectrochemical solar water splitting has shown potential as a renewable method for hydrogen production, a key ingredient to advance the de-carbonisation of our economy. Many methods to produce WO3 photoanodes are time-consuming and require high temperatures and/or toxic chemicals, such as fluoride-based electrolytes. Here we report on a systematic investigation of the anodisation of tungsten using CA to establish a relation between (i) anodisation parameters (current, time and electrolyte), (ii) the resulting nanostructured morphology and (iii) its performance as a photoanode for water splitting. Characterisation was carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, linear sweep voltammetry, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. After optimisation, the obtained WO3 photoanodes produced a photocurrent of 0.88 mA cm-2 at 1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl in 0.5 M aqueous H2SO4 under AM1.5 solar irradiation. At low applied potentials (below 0.67 V vs. Ag/AgCl), closer to practical conditions, the photoanodes produced in CA outperformed a conventional counterpart made using a NH4F electrolyte. The CA-anodised photoanodes also showed higher stability, retaining 90{\%} of their activity after 1 h of chopped solar illumination. This work demonstrates the promise of anodisation in citric acid as an efficient and more sustainable method for the production of WO3 photoanodes for solar water splitting.",
author = "Jifang Zhang and Ivette Salles and Sam Pering and Cameron, {Petra J.} and Davide Mattia and Salvador Eslava",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1039/c7ra05342h",
language = "English",
volume = "7",
pages = "35221--35227",
journal = "RSC Advances",
issn = "2046-2069",
publisher = "Royal Society of Chemistry",
number = "56",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Nanostructured WO3 photoanodes for efficient water splitting via anodisation in citric acid

AU - Zhang, Jifang

AU - Salles, Ivette

AU - Pering, Sam

AU - Cameron, Petra J.

AU - Mattia, Davide

AU - Eslava, Salvador

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - In this work we report the production of nanostructured WO3 photoanodes for solar water splitting produced via anodisation using for the first time citric acid (CA), a safer and more environmentally friendly alternative to fluoride-based electrolytes. Photoelectrochemical solar water splitting has shown potential as a renewable method for hydrogen production, a key ingredient to advance the de-carbonisation of our economy. Many methods to produce WO3 photoanodes are time-consuming and require high temperatures and/or toxic chemicals, such as fluoride-based electrolytes. Here we report on a systematic investigation of the anodisation of tungsten using CA to establish a relation between (i) anodisation parameters (current, time and electrolyte), (ii) the resulting nanostructured morphology and (iii) its performance as a photoanode for water splitting. Characterisation was carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, linear sweep voltammetry, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. After optimisation, the obtained WO3 photoanodes produced a photocurrent of 0.88 mA cm-2 at 1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl in 0.5 M aqueous H2SO4 under AM1.5 solar irradiation. At low applied potentials (below 0.67 V vs. Ag/AgCl), closer to practical conditions, the photoanodes produced in CA outperformed a conventional counterpart made using a NH4F electrolyte. The CA-anodised photoanodes also showed higher stability, retaining 90% of their activity after 1 h of chopped solar illumination. This work demonstrates the promise of anodisation in citric acid as an efficient and more sustainable method for the production of WO3 photoanodes for solar water splitting.

AB - In this work we report the production of nanostructured WO3 photoanodes for solar water splitting produced via anodisation using for the first time citric acid (CA), a safer and more environmentally friendly alternative to fluoride-based electrolytes. Photoelectrochemical solar water splitting has shown potential as a renewable method for hydrogen production, a key ingredient to advance the de-carbonisation of our economy. Many methods to produce WO3 photoanodes are time-consuming and require high temperatures and/or toxic chemicals, such as fluoride-based electrolytes. Here we report on a systematic investigation of the anodisation of tungsten using CA to establish a relation between (i) anodisation parameters (current, time and electrolyte), (ii) the resulting nanostructured morphology and (iii) its performance as a photoanode for water splitting. Characterisation was carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, linear sweep voltammetry, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. After optimisation, the obtained WO3 photoanodes produced a photocurrent of 0.88 mA cm-2 at 1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl in 0.5 M aqueous H2SO4 under AM1.5 solar irradiation. At low applied potentials (below 0.67 V vs. Ag/AgCl), closer to practical conditions, the photoanodes produced in CA outperformed a conventional counterpart made using a NH4F electrolyte. The CA-anodised photoanodes also showed higher stability, retaining 90% of their activity after 1 h of chopped solar illumination. This work demonstrates the promise of anodisation in citric acid as an efficient and more sustainable method for the production of WO3 photoanodes for solar water splitting.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85025065636&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1039/c7ra05342h

DO - 10.1039/c7ra05342h

M3 - Article

VL - 7

SP - 35221

EP - 35227

JO - RSC Advances

JF - RSC Advances

SN - 2046-2069

IS - 56

ER -