We review the state-of-the-art application of nanoparticles (NPs) in electrochemical analysis of environmental pollutants. We summarize methods for preparing NPs and modifying electrode surfaces with NPs. We describe several examples of applications in environmental electrochemical sensors and performance in terms of sensitivity and selectivity for both metal and metal-oxide NPs. We present recent trends in the beneficial use of NPs in constructing electrochemical sensors for environmental monitoring and discuss future challenges. NPs have promising potential to increase competitiveness of electrochemical sensors in environmental monitoring, though research has focused mainly on development of methodology for fabricating new sensors, and the number of studies for optimizing the performance of sensors and the applicability to real samples is still limited.