The piezoelectric enhancement of photo-catalytic activity for water splitting and pollutant degradation is a novel approach to developing renewable energy and environmental protection applications. Herein, a new form of defect engineered Na-Sm bimetallic-regulated CaBi2Nb2O9 platelet is synthesized via a molten salt process for water splitting and pollutant degradation applications. An intermediate band structure is introduced by Sm-doping, and empty orbitals in the conductive band are introduced by Na-doping. These factors, combined with the increased local charge density around the Sm and Na atoms, result in an increased electrical conductivity, improved electron mobility, and provide additional electrons for enhancing catalytic reactions. As a consequence, the judicious co-doping of CaBi2Nb2O9 with Sm and Na leads to a unique synergetic piezo-photo-electric effect to provide a superior piezo-photo-catalytic performance for H2 production (158.53 µmol g−1 h−1) and pollutant degradation (rate constant, k = 0.257 min−1). This new approach provides important insights into the application of defect engineering to exploit the cooperative doping of alkaline earth metals and rare metals to create high-performance catalysts.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2303736
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number38
Early online date24 May 2023
Publication statusPublished - 19 Sept 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was financially supported by Hunan Excellent Youth Science Foundation (2022JJ20067), Scientific research project of Hunan Provincial Department of Education (21B0009), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (52002404, 52172265), and the State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, China.


  • band structure engineering
  • DFT calculations
  • Na-Sm doped CaBiNbO
  • piezo-photo-catalysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • General Chemistry
  • Biomaterials
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrochemistry


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