N-Heterocyclic Carbene Modified Palladium Catalysts for the Direct Synthesis of Hydrogen Peroxide

Richard J. Lewis, Maximilian Koy, Margherita Macino, Mowpriya Das, James H. Carter, David J. Morgan, Thomas E. Davies, Johannes B. Ernst, Simon J. Freakley, Frank Glorius, Graham J. Hutchings

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19 Citations (SciVal)


Heterogeneous palladium catalysts modified by N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) are shown to be highly effective toward the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), in the absence of the promoters which are typically required to enhance both activity and selectivity. Catalytic evaluation in a batch regime demonstrated that through careful selection of the N-substituent of the NHC it is possible to greatly enhance catalytic performance when compared to the unmodified analogue and reach concentrations of H2O2 rivaling that obtained by state-of-the-art catalysts. The enhanced performance of the modified catalyst, which is retained upon reuse, is attributed to the ability of the NHC to electronically modify Pd speciation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15431-15436
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number34
Early online date17 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - 31 Aug 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
R.J.L., J.H.C., D.J.M., T.E.D., and G.J.H. gratefully acknowledge Cardiff University and the Max Planck Centre for Fundamental Heterogeneous Catalysis (FUNCAT) for financial support. M.K., M.D., J.B.E., and F.G. gratefully acknowledge the University of Münster and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Leibniz Award, SFB 858) for generous financial support. M.M. acknowledges the MAXNET Energy consortium for funding. J.B.E. acknowledges financial support by the Fonds der Chemischen Industrie. S.J.F. acknowledges the award of a Prize Research Fellowship from the University of Bath.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • General Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry


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