N-Aryl stilbazolium dyes as sensitizers for solar cells

Octavia A Blackburn, Benjamin J Coe, Valentine Hahn, Madeleine Helliwell, James Raftery, Yien T Ta, Laurence M Peter, Hongxia Wang, Juan A Anta, Elena Guillen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (SciVal)


Eight new N-arylstilbazolium chromophores with electron donating -NR 2 (R = Me or Ph) substituents have been synthesized via Knoevenagel condensations and isolated as their PF6- salts. These compounds have been characterized by using various techniques including 1H NMR and IR spectroscopies and electrospray mass spectrometry. UV-vis absorption spectra recorded in acetonitrile are dominated by intense, low energy → (*) intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) bands, and replacing Me with Ph increases the ICT energies. Cyclic voltammetric studies show irreversible reduction processes, together with oxidation waves that are irreversible for R = Me, but reversible for R = Ph. Single crystal X-ray structures have been determined for three of the methyl ester-substituted stilbazolium salts and for the Cl- salts of their picolinium precursors. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations afford reasonable predictions of ICT energies, but greater rigour is necessary for -NPh2 derivatives. The four new acid-functionalized dyes give moderate sensitization efficiencies (ca. 0.2%) when using TiO2-based photoanodes, with relatively higher values for R = Ph vs Me, while larger efficiencies (up to 0.8%) are achieved with ZnO substrates. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)766-777
Number of pages12
JournalDyes and Pigments
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2012


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