Prostate cancer (PCa) remains one of the most prominent forms of cancer for men. Since the early 1990s, Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) has been a commonly recognized PCa-associated protein biomarker. However, PSA testing has been shown to lack in specificity and sensitivity when needed to diagnose, monitor and/or treat PCa patients successfully. One enhancement could include the simultaneous detection of multiple PCa-associated protein biomarkers alongside PSA, also known as multiplexing. If conventional methods such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are used, multiplexed detection of such protein biomarkers can result in an increase in the required sample volume, in the complexity of the analytical procedures, and in adding to the cost. Using companion diagnostic devices such as biosensors, which can be portable and cost-effective with multiplexing capacities, may address these limitations. This review explores recent research for multiplexed PCa protein biomarker detection using optical and electrochemical biosensor platforms. Some of the novel and potential serum-based PCa protein biomarkers will be discussed in this review. In addition, this review discusses the importance of converting research protocols into multiplex point-of-care testing (xPOCT) devices to be used in near-patient settings, providing a more personalized approach to PCa patients’ diagnostic, surveillance and treatment management.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5023
Number of pages32
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 24 Jul 2021


  • Prostate cancer
  • point of care diagnostics
  • Multiplexed sensors
  • Protein biomarkers
  • Companion diagnostics


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