Multiple emergences of genetically diverse amphibian-infecting chytrids include a globalized hypervirulent recombinant lineage

R. A. Farrer, L. A. Weinert, J. Bielby, T. W. J. Garner, F. Balloux, F. Clare, J. Bosch, A. A. Cunningham, C. Weldon, L. H. Du Preez, L. Anderson, S. L. K. Pond, R. Shahar-golan, D. A. Henk, M. C. Fisher

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Abstract

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a globally ubiquitous fungal infection that has emerged to become a primary driver of amphibian biodiversity loss. Despite widespread effort to understand the emergence of this panzootic, the origins of the infection, its patterns of global spread, and principle mode of evolution remain largely unknown. Using comparative population genomics, we discovered three deeply diverged lineages of Bd associated with amphibians. Two of these lineages were found in multiple continents and are associated with known introductions by the amphibian trade. We found that isolates belonging to one clade, the global panzootic lineage (BdGPL) have emerged across at least five continents during the 20th century and are associated with the onset of epizootics in North America, Central America, the Caribbean, Australia, and Europe. The two newly identified divergent lineages, Cape lineage (BdCAPE) and Swiss lineage (BdCH), were found to differ in morphological traits when compared against one another and BdGPL, and we show that BdGPL is hypervirulent. BdGPL uniquely bears the hallmarks of genomic recombination, manifested as extensive intergenomic phylogenetic conflict and patchily distributed heterozygosity. We postulate that contact between previously genetically isolated allopatric populations of Bd may have allowed recombination to occur, resulting in the generation, spread, and invasion of the hypervirulent BdGPL leading to contemporary disease-driven losses in amphibian biodiversity.
LanguageEnglish
Pages18732-18736
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume108
Issue number46
DOIs
StatusPublished - 15 Nov 2011

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amphibians
biodiversity
allopatry
Central America
infection
heterozygosity
genomics
phylogeny

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Multiple emergences of genetically diverse amphibian-infecting chytrids include a globalized hypervirulent recombinant lineage. / Farrer, R. A.; Weinert, L. A.; Bielby, J.; Garner, T. W. J.; Balloux, F.; Clare, F.; Bosch, J.; Cunningham, A. A.; Weldon, C.; Du Preez, L. H.; Anderson, L.; Pond, S. L. K.; Shahar-golan, R.; Henk, D. A.; Fisher, M. C.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 108, No. 46, 15.11.2011, p. 18732-18736.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Farrer, RA, Weinert, LA, Bielby, J, Garner, TWJ, Balloux, F, Clare, F, Bosch, J, Cunningham, AA, Weldon, C, Du Preez, LH, Anderson, L, Pond, SLK, Shahar-golan, R, Henk, DA & Fisher, MC 2011, 'Multiple emergences of genetically diverse amphibian-infecting chytrids include a globalized hypervirulent recombinant lineage', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 108, no. 46, pp. 18732-18736. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1111915108
Farrer, R. A. ; Weinert, L. A. ; Bielby, J. ; Garner, T. W. J. ; Balloux, F. ; Clare, F. ; Bosch, J. ; Cunningham, A. A. ; Weldon, C. ; Du Preez, L. H. ; Anderson, L. ; Pond, S. L. K. ; Shahar-golan, R. ; Henk, D. A. ; Fisher, M. C. / Multiple emergences of genetically diverse amphibian-infecting chytrids include a globalized hypervirulent recombinant lineage. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2011 ; Vol. 108, No. 46. pp. 18732-18736.
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