This paper proposes a novel multi-resolution clustering (MRC) method that for the first time classifies end customers directly from massive, volatile and uncertain smart metering data. It will firstly extract spectral features of load profiles by multi-resolution analysis (MRA), and then cluster and classify these features in the spectral-domain instead of time-domain. The key advantage is that the proposed method will allow a dynamic load profiling to be flexibly re-constructed from each spectral level. MRC addresses three key limitations in time-series based load profiling: i) large sample size: sample size is reduced by a novel two-stage clustering, which firstly clusters each customers' massive daily profiles into several Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) and then clusters all GMMs; ii) volatility: it avoids the interferences between different load features (e.g. magnitude, overall trend, spikes) by decomposing them onto different resolution levels, and then clustering separately; iii) uncertainties: as the GMM can give a probabilistic cluster membership instead of a deterministic one, an additive classification model based on the posterior probability is proposed to reflect the uncertainty between days. The proposed method is implemented on 6369 smart metered customers from Ireland, and compared with the load profiles used by the U.K. industry and traditional K-means clustering. The results show that the developed MRC outperformed the traditional methods in its ability in profiling load for big, volatile and uncertain smart metering data.
Li, R., Li, F., & Smith, N. D. (2016). Multi-resolution load profile clustering for smart metering data. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 31(6), 4473-4482. [ TPWRS-00618-2015]. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2016.2536781