Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger

LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Virgo Collaboration, GBM Fermi, INTEGRAL, IceCube Collaboration, AstroSat Cadmium Zinc Telluride Imager Team, IPN Collaboration, The Insight-Hxmt Collaboration, ANTARES Collaboration, The Swift Collaboration, AGILE Team, The 1M2H Team, The Dark Energy Camera GW-EM Collaboration, the DES Collaboration, The DLT40 Collaboration, GRAWITA, GRAvitational Wave Inaf TeAm, The Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration, ATCA, Australia Telescope Compact ArrayASKAP, Australian SKA Pathfinder, Las Cumbres Observatory Group, OzGrav, DWF, AST3, CAASTRO Collaborations, The VINROUGE Collaboration, MASTER Collaboration, J-GEM, GROWTH, JAGWAR, NRAO Caltech-, TTU-NRAO, NuSTAR Collaborations, Pan-STARRS, The MAXI Team, TZAC Consortium, KU Collaboration, Nordic Optical Telescope, ePESSTO, GROND, Texas Tech University, SALT Group, TOROS, Transient Robotic Observatory of the South Collaboration, The BOOTES Collaboration, MWA, Murchison Widefield Array, The CALET Collaboration, IKI-GW Follow-up Collaboration, H. E. S. S. Collaboration, LOFAR Collaboration, LWA, Long Wavelength Array, HAWC Collaboration, The Pierre Auger Collaboration, ALMA Collaboration, Euro VLBI Team, Pi of the Sky Collaboration, The Chandra Team at McGill University, DFN, Desert Fireball Network, ATLAS, High Time Resolution Universe Survey, RIMAS, RATIR, SKA South Africa/MeerKAT, Hendrik Van Eerten

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On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) with a time delay of $\sim$1.7 s with respect to the merger time. From the gravitational-wave signal, the source was initially localized to a sky region of 31 deg$^2$ at a luminosity distance of $40^{+8}_{-8}$ Mpc and with component masses consistent with neutron stars. The component masses were later measured to be in the range 0.86 to 2.26 Msun. An extensive observing campaign was launched across the electromagnetic spectrum leading to the discovery of a bright optical transient (SSS17a, now with the IAU identification of AT 2017gfo) in NGC 4993 (at $\sim$40 Mpc) less than 11 hours after the merger by the One-Meter, Two Hemisphere (1M2H) team using the 1 m Swope Telescope. The optical transient was independently detected by multiple teams within an hour. Subsequent observations targeted the object and its environment. Early ultraviolet observations revealed a blue transient that faded within 48 hours. Optical and infrared observations showed a redward evolution over $\sim$10 days. Following early non-detections, X-ray and radio emission were discovered at the transient's position $\sim$9 and $\sim$16 days, respectively, after the merger. Both the X-ray and radio emission likely arise from a physical process that is distinct from the one that generates the UV/optical/near-infrared emission. No ultra-high-energy gamma-rays and no neutrino candidates consistent with the source were found in follow-up searches. (Abridged)
Original languageEnglish
Article numberL12
Number of pages59
JournalAstrophysical Journal Letters
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 16 Oct 2017

Bibliographical note

This is a reproduction of the article published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence


  • astro-ph.HE
  • gr-qc


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