Moenjodaro: A World Heritage Site at Risk

Enrico Fodde, M S Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (SciVal)
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The aim of this paper is to describe the main threats affecting Moenjodaro, an archaeological site that prospered from 2350 to 1800 BC in the fertile Indus flood plain of Sindh (Pakistan). The major hazard is today represented by soluble salts attack (mainly sodium sulphate), rising damp, heavy precipitation in the monsoon season, poor drainage, thermal stress causing walls to lean and decay structurally, visitor behaviour, site mismanagement, and the lack of vegetation. As a result of poor conservation and bad management, in the year 2000 the site was inscribed in the ICOMOS register of heritage at risk. The paper analyses past and present conservation methods, and provides recommendations for future repair and maintenance.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)52-69
Number of pages18
JournalThe Historic Environment: Policy & Practice
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2010


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