QA3 is a derivative of the substituted 1,3-dimethyl-1H-quinoxalin-2-ones, which are compounds that may selectively antagonize P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in multidrug resistance (MDR) cancer cells. Our previous work identified QA3 as a candidate compound for reversing MDR in cancer cells. In the present study, we found that QA3 significantly decreases the intracellular level of ATP, stimulates ATPase activity in membrane microsomes and decreases protein kinase C (PKC) activity. These results indicated that QA3 inhibits P-gp activity by blocking ATP hydrolysis and ATP regeneration. Furthermore, QA3 triggered and increased adriamycin-induced K562/A02 cell apoptosis as evidenced by Annexin V-FITC plus PI staining. Western blot analysis showed that the levels of cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 proteins increased, and similarly, the levels of procaspase-9 and procaspase-3 decreased after QA3 treatment. Consequently, poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) activity increased as evidenced by the presence of the PARP cleavage product in K562/A02 cells. QA3 also enhanced the potency of adriamycin against K562/A02 cells as demonstrated by increased apoptosis and activation of caspase-9,-3 and PARP. These data support the observation that P-gp activity is inhibited after QA3 treatment. Moreover, these results indicate that QA3 is a novel MDR reversal agent with potent inhibitory action against P-gp MDR cancer cells.
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - 2010|