People with asthma who do not adhere to their maintenance medication may experience poorer asthma control and need more healthcare support than those who adhere. People (N = 1010) aged 18–55 years with self-reported asthma, taking one or more asthma maintenance medication(s), from five European countries, participated in a survey using validated scales (Medication Adherence Report Scale [MARS], Asthma Control Test™ [ACT], Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire [BMQ] and the Asthma Treatment Intrusiveness Questionnaire [ATIQ]). We performed a post hoc evaluation of adherence to maintenance medication, asthma control, beliefs about medication, preferences for once-daily vs. twice-daily asthma maintenance medication and treatment intrusiveness, using structural equation modelling to investigate the relationships between these factors. Most participants reported potential problems with asthma control (ACT < 19: 76.8% [n = 776]), low adherence (median MARS = 3.40) and preferred once-daily medication (73.5% [n = 742/1010]). Non-adherence was associated with worse asthma control (r = 0.262 [P < 0.001]) and a expressed preference for once-daily medication over a "twice daily medication that works slightly better" (test statistic [T] = 2.970 [P = 0.003]). Participants reporting non-adherence/preferring once-daily medication had negative beliefs about their treatment (BMQ necessity-concerns differential: r = 0.437 [P < 0.001]/T = 6.886 [P < 0.001]) and found medication intrusive (ATIQ: r = −0.422 [P < 0.001]/T = 2.689[P = 0.007]). Structural equation modelling showed complex relationships between variables, including: (1) high concerns about treatment associated with increased perceived treatment intrusiveness and reduced adherence, which influenced asthma control; (2) high concerns about treatment and healthcare seeking behaviour, which were predictive of preferring twice-daily asthma medication. Concerns about medication and perceived treatment intrusiveness were predictive of poor adherence, and were associated with preference for once-daily asthma medication. Confirm the utility of the PAPA model and NCF in explaining nonadherence linked to poor asthma control.
Chapman, S., Dale, P., Svedsater, H., Stynes, G., Vyas, N., Price, D., & Horne, R. (2017). Modelling the effect of beliefs about asthma medication and treatment intrusiveness on adherence and preference for once- vs. twice-daily medication. Primary Care Respiratory Journal, . https://doi.org/10.1038/s41533-017-0061-7