Bistable asymmetric composites with piezoelectric actuators that induce 'snap-through' from one stable state to another are candidate smart materials for shape-change (morphing) applications. This paper combines a homogenised piezoelectric model of a Macro Fibre Composite with a bistable asymmetric laminate model. Both predicted shape and snap-through voltage of a piezo-actuated [0/90]T laminate compare favourably with experimental results.
Giddings, P. F., Kim, H. A., Salo, A. I. T., & Bowen, C. R. (2011). Modelling of piezoelectrically actuated bistable composites. Materials Letters, 65(9), 1261-1263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2011.01.015