# Modelling & Analysis of Hybrid Dynamic Systems Using a Bond Graph Approach

Rebecca Margetts

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis

### Abstract

Hybrid models are those containing continuous and discontinuous behaviour. In constructing dynamic systems models, it is frequently desirable to abstract rapidly changing, highly nonlinear behaviour to a discontinuity. Bond graphs lend themselves to systems modelling by being multi-disciplinary and reflecting the physics of the system. One advantage is that they can produce a mathematical model in a form that simulates quickly and efficiently. Hybrid bond graphs are a logical development which could further improve speed and efficiency. A range of hybrid bond graph forms have been proposed which are suitable for either simulation or further analysis, but not both. None have reached common usage.

A Hybrid bond graph method is proposed here which is suitable for simulation as well as providing engineering insight through analysis. This new method features a distinction between structural and parametric switching. The controlled junction is used for the former, and gives rise to dynamic causality. A controlled element is developed for the latter. Dynamic causality is unconstrained so as to aid insight, and a new notation is proposed.

The junction structure matrix for the hybrid bond graph features Boolean terms to reflect the controlled junctions in the graph structure. This hybrid JSM is used to generate a mixed-Boolean state equation. When storage elements are in dynamic causality, the resulting system equation is implicit.

The focus of this thesis is the exploitation of the model. The implicit form enables application of matrix-rank criteria from control theory, and control properties can be seen in the structure and causal assignment. An impulsive mode may occur when storage elements are in dynamic causality, but otherwise there are no energy losses associated with commutation because this method dictates the way discontinuities are abstracted.

The main contribution is therefore a Hybrid Bond Graph which reflects the physics of commutating systems and offers engineering insight through the choice of controlled elements and dynamic causality. It generates a unique, implicit, mixed-Boolean system equation, describing all modes of operation. This form is suitable for both simulation and analysis.
Language English Ph.D. University of Bath Ngwompo, Roger, SupervisorBudd, Christopher, Supervisor 31 Dec 2013 Published - Apr 2013

### Fingerprint

Dynamical systems
Physics
Electric commutation
Control theory
Energy dissipation
Mathematical models

### Keywords

• hybrid
• bond graph
• physical
• model
• dynamic
• aircraft
• switch
• mechatronic
• multi-disciplinary
• multi-physis

### Cite this

Modelling & Analysis of Hybrid Dynamic Systems Using a Bond Graph Approach. / Margetts, Rebecca.

2013. 155 p.

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis

title = "Modelling & Analysis of Hybrid Dynamic Systems Using a Bond Graph Approach",
abstract = "Hybrid models are those containing continuous and discontinuous behaviour. In constructing dynamic systems models, it is frequently desirable to abstract rapidly changing, highly nonlinear behaviour to a discontinuity. Bond graphs lend themselves to systems modelling by being multi-disciplinary and reflecting the physics of the system. One advantage is that they can produce a mathematical model in a form that simulates quickly and efficiently. Hybrid bond graphs are a logical development which could further improve speed and efficiency. A range of hybrid bond graph forms have been proposed which are suitable for either simulation or further analysis, but not both. None have reached common usage.A Hybrid bond graph method is proposed here which is suitable for simulation as well as providing engineering insight through analysis. This new method features a distinction between structural and parametric switching. The controlled junction is used for the former, and gives rise to dynamic causality. A controlled element is developed for the latter. Dynamic causality is unconstrained so as to aid insight, and a new notation is proposed.The junction structure matrix for the hybrid bond graph features Boolean terms to reflect the controlled junctions in the graph structure. This hybrid JSM is used to generate a mixed-Boolean state equation. When storage elements are in dynamic causality, the resulting system equation is implicit.The focus of this thesis is the exploitation of the model. The implicit form enables application of matrix-rank criteria from control theory, and control properties can be seen in the structure and causal assignment. An impulsive mode may occur when storage elements are in dynamic causality, but otherwise there are no energy losses associated with commutation because this method dictates the way discontinuities are abstracted.The main contribution is therefore a Hybrid Bond Graph which reflects the physics of commutating systems and offers engineering insight through the choice of controlled elements and dynamic causality. It generates a unique, implicit, mixed-Boolean system equation, describing all modes of operation. This form is suitable for both simulation and analysis.",
keywords = "hybrid , bond graph, physical , model, dynamic, aircraft, switch, mechatronic, multi-disciplinary, multi-physis",
author = "Rebecca Margetts",
year = "2013",
month = "4",
language = "English",
school = "University of Bath",

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T1 - Modelling & Analysis of Hybrid Dynamic Systems Using a Bond Graph Approach

AU - Margetts, Rebecca

PY - 2013/4

Y1 - 2013/4

N2 - Hybrid models are those containing continuous and discontinuous behaviour. In constructing dynamic systems models, it is frequently desirable to abstract rapidly changing, highly nonlinear behaviour to a discontinuity. Bond graphs lend themselves to systems modelling by being multi-disciplinary and reflecting the physics of the system. One advantage is that they can produce a mathematical model in a form that simulates quickly and efficiently. Hybrid bond graphs are a logical development which could further improve speed and efficiency. A range of hybrid bond graph forms have been proposed which are suitable for either simulation or further analysis, but not both. None have reached common usage.A Hybrid bond graph method is proposed here which is suitable for simulation as well as providing engineering insight through analysis. This new method features a distinction between structural and parametric switching. The controlled junction is used for the former, and gives rise to dynamic causality. A controlled element is developed for the latter. Dynamic causality is unconstrained so as to aid insight, and a new notation is proposed.The junction structure matrix for the hybrid bond graph features Boolean terms to reflect the controlled junctions in the graph structure. This hybrid JSM is used to generate a mixed-Boolean state equation. When storage elements are in dynamic causality, the resulting system equation is implicit.The focus of this thesis is the exploitation of the model. The implicit form enables application of matrix-rank criteria from control theory, and control properties can be seen in the structure and causal assignment. An impulsive mode may occur when storage elements are in dynamic causality, but otherwise there are no energy losses associated with commutation because this method dictates the way discontinuities are abstracted.The main contribution is therefore a Hybrid Bond Graph which reflects the physics of commutating systems and offers engineering insight through the choice of controlled elements and dynamic causality. It generates a unique, implicit, mixed-Boolean system equation, describing all modes of operation. This form is suitable for both simulation and analysis.

AB - Hybrid models are those containing continuous and discontinuous behaviour. In constructing dynamic systems models, it is frequently desirable to abstract rapidly changing, highly nonlinear behaviour to a discontinuity. Bond graphs lend themselves to systems modelling by being multi-disciplinary and reflecting the physics of the system. One advantage is that they can produce a mathematical model in a form that simulates quickly and efficiently. Hybrid bond graphs are a logical development which could further improve speed and efficiency. A range of hybrid bond graph forms have been proposed which are suitable for either simulation or further analysis, but not both. None have reached common usage.A Hybrid bond graph method is proposed here which is suitable for simulation as well as providing engineering insight through analysis. This new method features a distinction between structural and parametric switching. The controlled junction is used for the former, and gives rise to dynamic causality. A controlled element is developed for the latter. Dynamic causality is unconstrained so as to aid insight, and a new notation is proposed.The junction structure matrix for the hybrid bond graph features Boolean terms to reflect the controlled junctions in the graph structure. This hybrid JSM is used to generate a mixed-Boolean state equation. When storage elements are in dynamic causality, the resulting system equation is implicit.The focus of this thesis is the exploitation of the model. The implicit form enables application of matrix-rank criteria from control theory, and control properties can be seen in the structure and causal assignment. An impulsive mode may occur when storage elements are in dynamic causality, but otherwise there are no energy losses associated with commutation because this method dictates the way discontinuities are abstracted.The main contribution is therefore a Hybrid Bond Graph which reflects the physics of commutating systems and offers engineering insight through the choice of controlled elements and dynamic causality. It generates a unique, implicit, mixed-Boolean system equation, describing all modes of operation. This form is suitable for both simulation and analysis.

KW - hybrid

KW - bond graph

KW - physical

KW - model

KW - dynamic

KW - aircraft

KW - switch

KW - mechatronic

KW - multi-disciplinary

KW - multi-physis

M3 - Doctoral Thesis

ER -