### Abstract

The causally dynamic hybrid bond graph is extended to the case of mode-switching behaviour. Mode-switching 'trees' of switches and elements are historically used by bond graph practitioners to represent elements with piecewise-continuous functions. This case is defined as 'parametric switching' for the purposes of the hybrid bond graph, since the switching is internal to the element, as opposed to 'structural switching' which alters the model structure. This mode-switching 'tree' is concatenated into a new controlled element which features Boolean switching parameters in the constitutive equation, removing unnecessary complexity from the model. Mixed-Boolean state equations can be derived from the model, which are nonlinear and/or time-varying (and hence not in the familiar Linear Time Invariant Form). It can be seen that controlled elements often have a static causality assignment and leave the model structure unchanged. The result is a concise method for representing nonlinear behaviour as a piecewise-continuous function in the bond graph modelling framework.

Original language | English |
---|---|

Article number | 1725 |

Pages (from-to) | 96-102 |

Number of pages | 7 |

Journal | Mechatronics |

Volume | 28 |

Early online date | 12 May 2015 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 1 Jun 2015 |

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### Keywords

- Hybrid bond graph
- Mode-switching
- Parametric switching
- Physical system models
- Switched bond graph

### Cite this

*Mechatronics*,

*28*, 96-102. [1725]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mechatronics.2015.04.013

**Mode switching in causally dynamic hybrid bond graphs.** / Margetts, R.; Ngwompo, R. F.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

*Mechatronics*, vol. 28, 1725, pp. 96-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mechatronics.2015.04.013

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mode switching in causally dynamic hybrid bond graphs

AU - Margetts, R.

AU - Ngwompo, R. F.

PY - 2015/6/1

Y1 - 2015/6/1

N2 - The causally dynamic hybrid bond graph is extended to the case of mode-switching behaviour. Mode-switching 'trees' of switches and elements are historically used by bond graph practitioners to represent elements with piecewise-continuous functions. This case is defined as 'parametric switching' for the purposes of the hybrid bond graph, since the switching is internal to the element, as opposed to 'structural switching' which alters the model structure. This mode-switching 'tree' is concatenated into a new controlled element which features Boolean switching parameters in the constitutive equation, removing unnecessary complexity from the model. Mixed-Boolean state equations can be derived from the model, which are nonlinear and/or time-varying (and hence not in the familiar Linear Time Invariant Form). It can be seen that controlled elements often have a static causality assignment and leave the model structure unchanged. The result is a concise method for representing nonlinear behaviour as a piecewise-continuous function in the bond graph modelling framework.

AB - The causally dynamic hybrid bond graph is extended to the case of mode-switching behaviour. Mode-switching 'trees' of switches and elements are historically used by bond graph practitioners to represent elements with piecewise-continuous functions. This case is defined as 'parametric switching' for the purposes of the hybrid bond graph, since the switching is internal to the element, as opposed to 'structural switching' which alters the model structure. This mode-switching 'tree' is concatenated into a new controlled element which features Boolean switching parameters in the constitutive equation, removing unnecessary complexity from the model. Mixed-Boolean state equations can be derived from the model, which are nonlinear and/or time-varying (and hence not in the familiar Linear Time Invariant Form). It can be seen that controlled elements often have a static causality assignment and leave the model structure unchanged. The result is a concise method for representing nonlinear behaviour as a piecewise-continuous function in the bond graph modelling framework.

KW - Hybrid bond graph

KW - Mode-switching

KW - Parametric switching

KW - Physical system models

KW - Switched bond graph

U2 - 10.1016/j.mechatronics.2015.04.013

DO - 10.1016/j.mechatronics.2015.04.013

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84930819417

VL - 28

SP - 96

EP - 102

JO - Mechatronics

JF - Mechatronics

SN - 0957-4158

M1 - 1725

ER -