Milligram mass metrology using an electrostatic force balance

Gordon A Shaw, Julian Stirling, John A Kramar, Alexander Moses, Patrick Abbott, Richard Steiner, Andrew Koffman, Jon R Pratt, Zeina J Kubarych

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)
32 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Although mass is typically defined within the International System of Units (SI) at the kilogram level, the pending SI redefinition provides an opportunity to realize mass at any scale using electrical metrology. We propose the use of an electromechanical balance to realize mass at the milligram level using SI electrical units. An integrated concentric-cylinder vacuum gap capacitor allows us to leverage the highly precise references available for capacitance, voltage and length to generate an electrostatic reference force. Weighing experiments performed on 1 mg and 20 mg artifacts show the same or lower uncertainty than similar experiments performed by subdividing the kilogram. The measurement is currently limited by the stability of the materials that compose the mass artifacts and the changes in adsorbed layers on the artifact surfaces as they are transferred from vacuum to air.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)A86-A94
Number of pages9
JournalMetrologia
Volume53
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Sep 2016

Cite this

Shaw, G. A., Stirling, J., Kramar, J. A., Moses, A., Abbott, P., Steiner, R., ... Kubarych, Z. J. (2016). Milligram mass metrology using an electrostatic force balance. Metrologia, 53(5), A86-A94. https://doi.org/10.1088/0026-1394/53/5/A86

Milligram mass metrology using an electrostatic force balance. / Shaw, Gordon A; Stirling, Julian; Kramar, John A; Moses, Alexander; Abbott, Patrick; Steiner, Richard; Koffman, Andrew; Pratt, Jon R; Kubarych, Zeina J.

In: Metrologia, Vol. 53, No. 5, 28.09.2016, p. A86-A94.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shaw, GA, Stirling, J, Kramar, JA, Moses, A, Abbott, P, Steiner, R, Koffman, A, Pratt, JR & Kubarych, ZJ 2016, 'Milligram mass metrology using an electrostatic force balance', Metrologia, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. A86-A94. https://doi.org/10.1088/0026-1394/53/5/A86
Shaw GA, Stirling J, Kramar JA, Moses A, Abbott P, Steiner R et al. Milligram mass metrology using an electrostatic force balance. Metrologia. 2016 Sep 28;53(5):A86-A94. https://doi.org/10.1088/0026-1394/53/5/A86
Shaw, Gordon A ; Stirling, Julian ; Kramar, John A ; Moses, Alexander ; Abbott, Patrick ; Steiner, Richard ; Koffman, Andrew ; Pratt, Jon R ; Kubarych, Zeina J. / Milligram mass metrology using an electrostatic force balance. In: Metrologia. 2016 ; Vol. 53, No. 5. pp. A86-A94.
@article{4e9151604b174af6babc6bf32a2d5b73,
title = "Milligram mass metrology using an electrostatic force balance",
abstract = "Although mass is typically defined within the International System of Units (SI) at the kilogram level, the pending SI redefinition provides an opportunity to realize mass at any scale using electrical metrology. We propose the use of an electromechanical balance to realize mass at the milligram level using SI electrical units. An integrated concentric-cylinder vacuum gap capacitor allows us to leverage the highly precise references available for capacitance, voltage and length to generate an electrostatic reference force. Weighing experiments performed on 1 mg and 20 mg artifacts show the same or lower uncertainty than similar experiments performed by subdividing the kilogram. The measurement is currently limited by the stability of the materials that compose the mass artifacts and the changes in adsorbed layers on the artifact surfaces as they are transferred from vacuum to air.",
author = "Shaw, {Gordon A} and Julian Stirling and Kramar, {John A} and Alexander Moses and Patrick Abbott and Richard Steiner and Andrew Koffman and Pratt, {Jon R} and Kubarych, {Zeina J}",
year = "2016",
month = "9",
day = "28",
doi = "10.1088/0026-1394/53/5/A86",
language = "English",
volume = "53",
pages = "A86--A94",
journal = "Metrologia",
issn = "0026-1394",
publisher = "IOP Publishing",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Milligram mass metrology using an electrostatic force balance

AU - Shaw, Gordon A

AU - Stirling, Julian

AU - Kramar, John A

AU - Moses, Alexander

AU - Abbott, Patrick

AU - Steiner, Richard

AU - Koffman, Andrew

AU - Pratt, Jon R

AU - Kubarych, Zeina J

PY - 2016/9/28

Y1 - 2016/9/28

N2 - Although mass is typically defined within the International System of Units (SI) at the kilogram level, the pending SI redefinition provides an opportunity to realize mass at any scale using electrical metrology. We propose the use of an electromechanical balance to realize mass at the milligram level using SI electrical units. An integrated concentric-cylinder vacuum gap capacitor allows us to leverage the highly precise references available for capacitance, voltage and length to generate an electrostatic reference force. Weighing experiments performed on 1 mg and 20 mg artifacts show the same or lower uncertainty than similar experiments performed by subdividing the kilogram. The measurement is currently limited by the stability of the materials that compose the mass artifacts and the changes in adsorbed layers on the artifact surfaces as they are transferred from vacuum to air.

AB - Although mass is typically defined within the International System of Units (SI) at the kilogram level, the pending SI redefinition provides an opportunity to realize mass at any scale using electrical metrology. We propose the use of an electromechanical balance to realize mass at the milligram level using SI electrical units. An integrated concentric-cylinder vacuum gap capacitor allows us to leverage the highly precise references available for capacitance, voltage and length to generate an electrostatic reference force. Weighing experiments performed on 1 mg and 20 mg artifacts show the same or lower uncertainty than similar experiments performed by subdividing the kilogram. The measurement is currently limited by the stability of the materials that compose the mass artifacts and the changes in adsorbed layers on the artifact surfaces as they are transferred from vacuum to air.

U2 - 10.1088/0026-1394/53/5/A86

DO - 10.1088/0026-1394/53/5/A86

M3 - Article

VL - 53

SP - A86-A94

JO - Metrologia

JF - Metrologia

SN - 0026-1394

IS - 5

ER -