We report the microwave synthesis of several bis(thiosemicarbazones) and the rapid gallium-68 incorporation to give the corresponding metal complexes. These proved kinetically stable under ‘cold’ and ‘hot’ biological assays and were investigated using laser scanning confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and radioactive cell retention studies under normoxia and hypoxia. 68Ga complex retention was found to be 34% higher in hypoxic cells than in normoxic cells over 30 min, further increasing to 53% at 120 min. Our data suggests that this class of gallium complexes show hypoxia selectivity suitable for imaging in living cells and in vivo tests by microPET in nude athymic mice showed that they are excreted within 1 h of their administration.
Alam, I. S., Arrowsmith, R. L., Cortezon Tamarit, F., Twyman, F., Kociok-köhn, G., Botchway, S. W., Dilworth, J. R., Carroll, L., Aboagye, E. O., & Pascu, S. I. (2016). Microwave gallium-68 radiochemistry for kinetically stable bis(thiosemicarbazone) complexes: structural investigations and cellular uptake under hypoxia. Dalton Transactions , 45(1), 144-155. https://doi.org/10.1039/C5DT02537K