Microwave-enhanced anodic stripping detection of lead in a river sediment sample. A mercury-free procedure employing a boron-doped diamond electrode

Yu Chen Tsai, Barry A. Coles, Katherine Holt, John S. Foord, Frank Marken, Richard G. Compton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

63 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Microwave activation of electrochemical processes has recently been introduced as a novel technique for the enhancement and control of processes at the electrode-solution interface and is employed here to improve the analytical detection of Pb2+. Instead of the conventional mercury-based accumulation and stripping procedure, mercury-free boron-doped diamond electrodes are employed. The deposition and anodic stripping detection by square-wave voltammetry of Pb2+ in a 0.1 M HNO3 solution is shown to be strongly enhanced by microwave activation at boron-doped diamond electrode. The temperature at the electrode-solution interface is calibrated with reversible redox couple Fe3+/Fe2+ (4 mM Fe3+, 4 mM Fe2+) in 0.1 M HNO3 and a standard addition procedure is developed for the sensitive detection of Pb2+ concentrations from 1 μM to 5 μM. The limit of detection by square-wave voltammetry after 20 s deposition time was found to be 0.1 μM and 1.0 μM with microwave activation and without microwave activation, respectively. Then, the Pb content in a water sediment sample detected by anodic stripping voltammetry at boron-doped diamond electrodes is shown to be in good agreement with two other independent analytical procedures based on ICP mass spectroscopy and on sono-cathodic stripping voltammetry.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)831-835
Number of pages5
JournalElectroanalysis
Volume13
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Aug 2001

Keywords

  • Boron-doped diamond
  • Microwave
  • Square-wave voltammetry
  • Stripping voltammetry
  • Thermal activation
  • Trace metal
  • Voltammetry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Electrochemistry

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