Microwave-assisted extraction of Vernonia amygdalina leaf for optimal recovery of total phenolic content

O. R. Alara, N. H. Abdurahman, S. K. Abdul Mudalip, O. A. Olalere

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31 Citations (SciVal)


The microwave-assisted extraction conditions for the optimal yield of extracts and total phenolic content (TPC) from Vernonia amygdalina leaf were optimized using a face-centered central composite design of response surface methodology. The independent parameters were viz: irradiation time (5–15 min), microwave power (400–600 W), temperature (90–110 °C), and feed-to-solvent ratio (1:8–1:12 g/mL). The optimal conditions for highest yield of extract (22.34% w/w) and TPC (102.24 mg GAE/g d.w.) were obtained at irradiation time of 8 min, microwave power of 416 W, temperature of 100 °C, and feed-to-solvent ratio of 1:8 g/mL. The quadratic model significantly (p < 0.0001) fitted the experimental data with R2 values of 0.9664 and 0.9885 for the responses (extraction yield and TPC), respectively. Furthermore, the efficiency of MAE was compared with Soxhlet, it was observed that the yields, antioxidant activity and functional groups from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis was higher than that of the Soxhlet extract.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16-24
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jun 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We acknowledge the support of Universiti Malaysia Pahang under the UMP grant number RDU180329.


  • Antioxidant
  • Extraction
  • Total phenolic content
  • V. amygdalina

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Drug Discovery
  • Plant Science


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