Insecticide resistance in laboratory selected Drosophila strains has been associated with upregulation of a range of different cytochrome P450s, however in recent field isolates of D. melanogaster resistance to DDT and other compounds is conferred by one P450 gene, Cyp6g1. Using microarray analysis of all Drosophila P450 genes, here we show that different P450 genes such as Cyp12d1 and Cyp6a8 can also be selected using DDT in the laboratory. We also show, however, that a homolog of Cyp6g1 is over-expressed in a field resistant strain of D. simulans. In order to determine why Cyp6g1 is so widely selected in the field we examine the pattern of cross-resistance of both resistant strains and transgenic flies over-expressing Cyp6g1 alone. We show that all three DDT selected P450s can confer resistance to the neonicotinoid imidacloprid but that Cyp6a8 confers no cross-resistance to malathion. Transgenic flies over-expressing Cyp6g1 also show cross-resistance to other neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid and nitenpyram. We suggest that the broad level of cross-resistance shown by Cyp6g1 may have facilitated its selection as a resistance gene in natural Drosophila populations.