Increasingly stringent emission regulations and environmental concerns have propelled the development of electrification technology in the transport industry. Yet, the greatest hurdle to developing fully electric vehicles is electrochemical energy storage, which struggles to achieve profitable specific power, specific energy and cost targets. Hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs), which combine energy-and power-optimised sources, seem to be the most promising solution for improving the overall performance of energy storage. The potential for gravimetric and volumetric reduction is strictly dependent on the overall power-to-energy ratio (PE ratio) of the application, packaging factors, the minimum and maximum PE ratio achievable for the system’s energy-and power-optimised sources and the performance of power electronics. This paper presents a simple optimisation methodology that considers these factors and identifies the optimal HESS requirements that may present new opportunities for a variety of vehicles where low weight and volume are of high importance. The simplicity of the method means that decisions relating to a HESS can be made earlier in the system design process. This method of analysis showed that a battery HESS has the potential to reduce cell mass and volume by over 30% for applications that are well suited to optimal HESS characteristics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number37
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 3 Jun 2021


  • Battery
  • DC/DC converter
  • Energy density
  • HESS
  • Power density
  • Power-to-energy ratio
  • Ragone
  • Volume
  • Weight

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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