Blood comprises a concentrated suspension of cells in an aqueous solution of proteins, and other substances. During its circulation blood is exposed to a range of mechanical stresses; these stresses can be significantly more extreme when blood contacting devices such as heart valves, artificial hearts or artificial lungs are introduced. Mechanical stresses produce a host of adverse effects on the blood and understanding these is vital to eliminating complications associated with blood contacting devices. In this chapter the mechanical stresses experienced by blood are first outlined and then their effects on the different blood components are described. State-of-the-art numerical models for estimating blood damage are discussed: these can be used for comparing devices and making design improvements. The chapter concludes by examining some of the experimental and numerical issues which should be addressed in order to better understand how mechanical blood contacting devices can be made less traumatic to blood.
|Title of host publication||Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes|
|Editors||Sid Becker, Andrey Kuznetsov|
|Place of Publication||London, U. K.|
|Publisher||Elsevier Academic Press Inc|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 2015|