Mechanical and microstructural characterisation of cooling pipes for the compact muon solenoid experiment at cern

George Zaburda, Antti Onnela, Kamil Cichy, Jerome Daguin, Alexander J.G. Lunt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a particle physics experiment situated on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Switzerland. The CMS upgrade (planned for 2025) involves in-stalling a new advanced sensor system within the CMS tracker, the centre of the detector closest to the particle collisions. The increased heat load associated with these sensors has required the design of an enhanced cooling system that exploits the latent heat of 40 bar CO2. In order to minimise in-teraction with the incident radiation and improve the detector performance, the cooling pipes within this system need to be thin‐walled (~100 μm) and strong enough to withstand these pres-sures. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the microstructure and mechanical properties of thin-walled cooling pipes currently in use in existing detectors to assess their potential for the tracker upgrade. In total, 22 different pipes were examined, which were composed of CuNi, SS316L, and Ti and were coated with Ni, Cu, and Au. The samples were characterised using computer tomography for 3D structural assessment, focused ion beam ring‐core milling for microscale residual stress anal-ysis, optical profilometry for surface roughness, optical microscopy for grain size analysis, and energy dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy for elemental analysis. Overall, this examination demonstrated that the Ni‐ and Cu‐coated SS316L tubing was optimal due to a combination of low residual stress (20 MPa axial and 5 MPa hoop absolute), low coating roughness (0.4 μm Ra), minimal elemental diffusion, and a small void fraction (1.4%). This result offers a crucial starting point for the ongoing thin‐walled pipe selection, development, and pipe‐joining research required for the CMS tracker upgrade, as well as the widespread use of CO2 cooling systems in general.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3190
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jun 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • CERN
  • CMS
  • Digital image correlation
  • Focused ion beam
  • Microscopy
  • Profilometry
  • Spectroscopy
  • Thin‐walled cooling pipes
  • Tomography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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