Underwater soundscapes are complex as they are a combination of several components with overlapping acoustic frequencies and different timescales, from individual durations to seasonality and long-term trends. Sounds below 100 Hz are of particular interest to compare human impacts with natural processes and animal vocalisations, but understanding is often limited to specific signals on their own, not their combination. We have processed over two years (2018 and 2019) of measurements from the Lofoten-Vesteralen cabled ocean observatory, located 15 km offshore northern Norway, at a depth of 255 m. Earlier analyses (Garibbo et al., 2020,1 Garibbo et al., 20212) identified the different contributions of weather, shipping and earthquakes in data collected in 2018, using deep learning to automatically detect common 20 Hz fin whale calls. The results of the deep learning approach are compared to a new, improved shipping detector, based on traditional spectral analyses, showing the complementarity of each approach. By extending these analyses using data from 2019, we can quantify the standard soundscape components based on origins, frequency ranges and seasonality, and assess their variability over time. These extensive results provide a useful baseline for further studies of other low-frequency environments around the world.

Original languageEnglish
Article number070017
Number of pages13
JournalProceedings of Meetings on Acoustics
Publication statusPublished - 25 Oct 2022
EventInternational Conference on Underwater Acoustics ICUA-2022 - Southampton, UK United Kingdom
Duration: 19 Jun 202223 Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research is supported by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), as part of industrial Cooperative Award in Science and Technology (iCASE) project #2279119, supported by Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (Dstl) and AWE Forensic Seismology. © 2022 British Crown Owned Copyright/DSTL, AWE. Contains public sector information licensed under the Open Government Licence v3.0.


  • underwater acoustics
  • soundscape
  • ambient noise
  • whale
  • shipping
  • earthquake

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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