Lower Ionosphere Effects on Narrowband Very Low Frequency Transmission Propagation: Fast Variabilities and Frequency Dependence

Kuang Liang Koh, Zhongjian Liu, Martin Fullekrug

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The man-made narrowband very low frequency transmission from Rhauderfehn, Germany, is studied using high accuracy, microsecond time resolution measurements in Bath, UK. The high time resolution enables a novel comparison of the measurements with a detailed simulation of the transmitted signal. It is found that the wave propagation frequency response exhibits nonlinear amplitude and phase changes with frequency over the narrow transmission bandwidth during the time of the measurements (13 May 2011 15:00:03–15:00:09 UTC). The high time resolution also enables measurements of fast variabilities in the wave propagation <5 ms. The fast propagation variabilities are likely to originate from integrated ionospheric variability over the propagation path or fast ionospheric processes. The wave propagation frequency response measurement has potential benefits in the study of the lower ionosphere, in particular during highly variable perturbations such as those caused by lightning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)611-623
Number of pages13
JournalRadio Science
Issue number5
Early online date23 Mar 2018
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jun 2018



  • VLF transmissions
  • lower ionosphere
  • radio wave propagation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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