Liver glycogen metabolism during and after prolonged endurance-type exercise: hepatic glycogen and endurance exercise

Javier T. Gonzalez, Cas J. Fuchs, James A. Betts, Luc J. C. van Loon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • 15 Citations

Abstract

Carbohydrate and fat are the main substrates utilized during prolonged endurance-type exercise. The relative contribution of each is primarily determined by the intensity and duration of exercise, along with individual training and nutritional status. During moderate-to-high intensity exercise, carbohydrate represents the main substrate source. As endogenous carbohydrate stores (primarily in liver and muscle) are relatively small, endurance-type exercise performance/capacity is often limited by endogenous carbohydrate availability. Much exercise metabolism research to date has focused on muscle glycogen utilization with little attention to the contribution of liver glycogen. 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy permits direct, non-invasive measurements of liver glycogen content and has increased understanding of the relevance of liver glycogen during exercise. In contrast to muscle, endurance-trained athletes do not exhibit elevated basal liver glycogen concentrations. However, there is evidence that liver glycogenolysis may be lower in endurance-trained athletes compared to untrained controls during moderate-to-high intensity exercise. Liver glycogen sparing in an endurance-trained state may therefore partly account for training-induced performance/capacity adaptations during prolonged (>90 min) exercise. Ingestion of carbohydrate at a relatively high rate (>1.5 g/min) can prevent liver glycogen depletion during moderate-intensity exercise, independent of the type of carbohydrate (e.g. glucose vs sucrose) ingested. To minimize gastrointestinal discomfort, it is recommended to ingest specific combinations or types of carbohydrates (glucose plus fructose and/or sucrose). By co-ingesting glucose with either galactose or fructose, post-exercise liver glycogen repletion rates can be doubled. There are currently no guidelines for carbohydrate ingestion to maximize liver glycogen repletion.
LanguageEnglish
PagesE543-E553
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume311
Issue number3
Early online date21 Jul 2016
DOIs
StatusPublished - 1 Sep 2016

Fingerprint

Liver Glycogen
Exercise
Carbohydrates
Fructose
Glucose
Athletes
Muscles
Sucrose
Eating
Glycogenolysis
Liver
Nutritional Status
Glycogen
Galactose
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Fats
Guidelines

Cite this

@article{30b040379df8484285c6b183282ae658,
title = "Liver glycogen metabolism during and after prolonged endurance-type exercise: hepatic glycogen and endurance exercise",
abstract = "Carbohydrate and fat are the main substrates utilized during prolonged endurance-type exercise. The relative contribution of each is primarily determined by the intensity and duration of exercise, along with individual training and nutritional status. During moderate-to-high intensity exercise, carbohydrate represents the main substrate source. As endogenous carbohydrate stores (primarily in liver and muscle) are relatively small, endurance-type exercise performance/capacity is often limited by endogenous carbohydrate availability. Much exercise metabolism research to date has focused on muscle glycogen utilization with little attention to the contribution of liver glycogen. 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy permits direct, non-invasive measurements of liver glycogen content and has increased understanding of the relevance of liver glycogen during exercise. In contrast to muscle, endurance-trained athletes do not exhibit elevated basal liver glycogen concentrations. However, there is evidence that liver glycogenolysis may be lower in endurance-trained athletes compared to untrained controls during moderate-to-high intensity exercise. Liver glycogen sparing in an endurance-trained state may therefore partly account for training-induced performance/capacity adaptations during prolonged (>90 min) exercise. Ingestion of carbohydrate at a relatively high rate (>1.5 g/min) can prevent liver glycogen depletion during moderate-intensity exercise, independent of the type of carbohydrate (e.g. glucose vs sucrose) ingested. To minimize gastrointestinal discomfort, it is recommended to ingest specific combinations or types of carbohydrates (glucose plus fructose and/or sucrose). By co-ingesting glucose with either galactose or fructose, post-exercise liver glycogen repletion rates can be doubled. There are currently no guidelines for carbohydrate ingestion to maximize liver glycogen repletion.",
author = "Gonzalez, {Javier T.} and Fuchs, {Cas J.} and Betts, {James A.} and {van Loon}, {Luc J. C.}",
year = "2016",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1152/ajpendo.00232.2016",
language = "English",
volume = "311",
pages = "E543--E553",
journal = "American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism",
issn = "0193-1849",
publisher = "American Physiological Society",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Liver glycogen metabolism during and after prolonged endurance-type exercise

T2 - American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism

AU - Gonzalez,Javier T.

AU - Fuchs,Cas J.

AU - Betts,James A.

AU - van Loon,Luc J. C.

PY - 2016/9/1

Y1 - 2016/9/1

N2 - Carbohydrate and fat are the main substrates utilized during prolonged endurance-type exercise. The relative contribution of each is primarily determined by the intensity and duration of exercise, along with individual training and nutritional status. During moderate-to-high intensity exercise, carbohydrate represents the main substrate source. As endogenous carbohydrate stores (primarily in liver and muscle) are relatively small, endurance-type exercise performance/capacity is often limited by endogenous carbohydrate availability. Much exercise metabolism research to date has focused on muscle glycogen utilization with little attention to the contribution of liver glycogen. 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy permits direct, non-invasive measurements of liver glycogen content and has increased understanding of the relevance of liver glycogen during exercise. In contrast to muscle, endurance-trained athletes do not exhibit elevated basal liver glycogen concentrations. However, there is evidence that liver glycogenolysis may be lower in endurance-trained athletes compared to untrained controls during moderate-to-high intensity exercise. Liver glycogen sparing in an endurance-trained state may therefore partly account for training-induced performance/capacity adaptations during prolonged (>90 min) exercise. Ingestion of carbohydrate at a relatively high rate (>1.5 g/min) can prevent liver glycogen depletion during moderate-intensity exercise, independent of the type of carbohydrate (e.g. glucose vs sucrose) ingested. To minimize gastrointestinal discomfort, it is recommended to ingest specific combinations or types of carbohydrates (glucose plus fructose and/or sucrose). By co-ingesting glucose with either galactose or fructose, post-exercise liver glycogen repletion rates can be doubled. There are currently no guidelines for carbohydrate ingestion to maximize liver glycogen repletion.

AB - Carbohydrate and fat are the main substrates utilized during prolonged endurance-type exercise. The relative contribution of each is primarily determined by the intensity and duration of exercise, along with individual training and nutritional status. During moderate-to-high intensity exercise, carbohydrate represents the main substrate source. As endogenous carbohydrate stores (primarily in liver and muscle) are relatively small, endurance-type exercise performance/capacity is often limited by endogenous carbohydrate availability. Much exercise metabolism research to date has focused on muscle glycogen utilization with little attention to the contribution of liver glycogen. 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy permits direct, non-invasive measurements of liver glycogen content and has increased understanding of the relevance of liver glycogen during exercise. In contrast to muscle, endurance-trained athletes do not exhibit elevated basal liver glycogen concentrations. However, there is evidence that liver glycogenolysis may be lower in endurance-trained athletes compared to untrained controls during moderate-to-high intensity exercise. Liver glycogen sparing in an endurance-trained state may therefore partly account for training-induced performance/capacity adaptations during prolonged (>90 min) exercise. Ingestion of carbohydrate at a relatively high rate (>1.5 g/min) can prevent liver glycogen depletion during moderate-intensity exercise, independent of the type of carbohydrate (e.g. glucose vs sucrose) ingested. To minimize gastrointestinal discomfort, it is recommended to ingest specific combinations or types of carbohydrates (glucose plus fructose and/or sucrose). By co-ingesting glucose with either galactose or fructose, post-exercise liver glycogen repletion rates can be doubled. There are currently no guidelines for carbohydrate ingestion to maximize liver glycogen repletion.

UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00232.2016

U2 - 10.1152/ajpendo.00232.2016

DO - 10.1152/ajpendo.00232.2016

M3 - Article

VL - 311

SP - E543-E553

JO - American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism

JF - American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism

SN - 0193-1849

IS - 3

ER -