Lipid metabolism links nutrient-exercise timing to insulin sensitivity in men classified as overweight or obese.

Breakfast, exercise and metabolic health

Rob Edinburgh, Helen Bradley, N-F Abdullah, Scott Robinson, Oliver Chrzanowski-Smith, Jean-Philippe Walhin, Sophie Joanisse, Konstantinos Manolopoulos, Andrew Philp, Aaron Hengist, Adrian Chabowski, Frances Brodsky, Francoise Koumanov, James Betts, Dylan Thompson, Gareth Wallis, Javier Gonzalez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Context: Pre-exercise nutrient availability alters acute metabolic responses to exercise, which could modulate training responsiveness. Objective: To assess acute and chronic effects of exercise performed before versus after nutrient ingestion on whole-body and intramuscular lipid utilization, and postprandial glucose metabolism. Design: 1) Acute, randomised, crossover design (Acute Study); 2) 6-week, randomised, controlled design (Training Study). Setting: General community. Participants: Men with overweight/obesity (mean±SD, BMI: 30.2±3.5 kgm-2 for Acute Study, 30.9±4.5 kgm-2 for Training Study). Interventions: Moderate-intensity cycling performed before versus after mixed-macronutrient breakfast (Acute Study) or carbohydrate (Training Study) ingestion. Results: Acute Study - exercise before versus after breakfast consumption increased net intramuscular lipid utilization in type I (net change: -3.44±2.63% versus 1.44±4.18% area lipid staining, p < 0.01) and type II fibres (-1.89±2.48% versus 1.83±1.92% area lipid staining, p < 0.05). Training Study - postprandial glycemia was not differentially affected by 6-weeks of exercise training performed before versus after carbohydrate intake (p>0.05). However, postprandial insulinemia was reduced with exercise training performed before, but not after carbohydrate ingestion (p=0.03). This resulted in increased oral glucose insulin sensitivity (25±38 vs -21±32 mLmin-1m-2; p=0.01), associated with increased lipid utilization during exercise (r=0.50, p=0.02). Regular exercise before nutrient provision also augmented remodelling of skeletal muscle phospholipids and protein content of the glucose transport protein GLUT4 (p<0.05). Conclusions: Experiments investigating exercise training and metabolic health should consider nutrient-exercise timing, and exercise performed before versus after nutrient intake (i.e., in the fasted state) may exert beneficial effects on lipid utilisation and reduce postprandial insulinemia.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberdgz104
Pages (from-to)1-47
Number of pages47
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Early online date19 Oct 2019
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 19 Oct 2019

Keywords

  • exercise
  • glucose
  • insulin sensitivity
  • nutrition
  • metabolism

Cite this

Lipid metabolism links nutrient-exercise timing to insulin sensitivity in men classified as overweight or obese. Breakfast, exercise and metabolic health. / Edinburgh, Rob; Bradley, Helen; Abdullah, N-F; Robinson, Scott; Chrzanowski-Smith, Oliver; Walhin, Jean-Philippe; Joanisse, Sophie; Manolopoulos, Konstantinos; Philp, Andrew; Hengist, Aaron; Chabowski, Adrian; Brodsky, Frances; Koumanov, Francoise; Betts, James; Thompson, Dylan; Wallis, Gareth; Gonzalez, Javier.

In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 19.10.2019, p. 1-47.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Context: Pre-exercise nutrient availability alters acute metabolic responses to exercise, which could modulate training responsiveness. Objective: To assess acute and chronic effects of exercise performed before versus after nutrient ingestion on whole-body and intramuscular lipid utilization, and postprandial glucose metabolism. Design: 1) Acute, randomised, crossover design (Acute Study); 2) 6-week, randomised, controlled design (Training Study). Setting: General community. Participants: Men with overweight/obesity (mean±SD, BMI: 30.2±3.5 kgm-2 for Acute Study, 30.9±4.5 kgm-2 for Training Study). Interventions: Moderate-intensity cycling performed before versus after mixed-macronutrient breakfast (Acute Study) or carbohydrate (Training Study) ingestion. Results: Acute Study - exercise before versus after breakfast consumption increased net intramuscular lipid utilization in type I (net change: -3.44±2.63{\%} versus 1.44±4.18{\%} area lipid staining, p < 0.01) and type II fibres (-1.89±2.48{\%} versus 1.83±1.92{\%} area lipid staining, p < 0.05). Training Study - postprandial glycemia was not differentially affected by 6-weeks of exercise training performed before versus after carbohydrate intake (p>0.05). However, postprandial insulinemia was reduced with exercise training performed before, but not after carbohydrate ingestion (p=0.03). This resulted in increased oral glucose insulin sensitivity (25±38 vs -21±32 mLmin-1m-2; p=0.01), associated with increased lipid utilization during exercise (r=0.50, p=0.02). Regular exercise before nutrient provision also augmented remodelling of skeletal muscle phospholipids and protein content of the glucose transport protein GLUT4 (p<0.05). Conclusions: Experiments investigating exercise training and metabolic health should consider nutrient-exercise timing, and exercise performed before versus after nutrient intake (i.e., in the fasted state) may exert beneficial effects on lipid utilisation and reduce postprandial insulinemia.",
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T1 - Lipid metabolism links nutrient-exercise timing to insulin sensitivity in men classified as overweight or obese.

T2 - Breakfast, exercise and metabolic health

AU - Edinburgh, Rob

AU - Bradley, Helen

AU - Abdullah, N-F

AU - Robinson, Scott

AU - Chrzanowski-Smith, Oliver

AU - Walhin, Jean-Philippe

AU - Joanisse, Sophie

AU - Manolopoulos, Konstantinos

AU - Philp, Andrew

AU - Hengist, Aaron

AU - Chabowski, Adrian

AU - Brodsky, Frances

AU - Koumanov, Francoise

AU - Betts, James

AU - Thompson, Dylan

AU - Wallis, Gareth

AU - Gonzalez, Javier

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N2 - Context: Pre-exercise nutrient availability alters acute metabolic responses to exercise, which could modulate training responsiveness. Objective: To assess acute and chronic effects of exercise performed before versus after nutrient ingestion on whole-body and intramuscular lipid utilization, and postprandial glucose metabolism. Design: 1) Acute, randomised, crossover design (Acute Study); 2) 6-week, randomised, controlled design (Training Study). Setting: General community. Participants: Men with overweight/obesity (mean±SD, BMI: 30.2±3.5 kgm-2 for Acute Study, 30.9±4.5 kgm-2 for Training Study). Interventions: Moderate-intensity cycling performed before versus after mixed-macronutrient breakfast (Acute Study) or carbohydrate (Training Study) ingestion. Results: Acute Study - exercise before versus after breakfast consumption increased net intramuscular lipid utilization in type I (net change: -3.44±2.63% versus 1.44±4.18% area lipid staining, p < 0.01) and type II fibres (-1.89±2.48% versus 1.83±1.92% area lipid staining, p < 0.05). Training Study - postprandial glycemia was not differentially affected by 6-weeks of exercise training performed before versus after carbohydrate intake (p>0.05). However, postprandial insulinemia was reduced with exercise training performed before, but not after carbohydrate ingestion (p=0.03). This resulted in increased oral glucose insulin sensitivity (25±38 vs -21±32 mLmin-1m-2; p=0.01), associated with increased lipid utilization during exercise (r=0.50, p=0.02). Regular exercise before nutrient provision also augmented remodelling of skeletal muscle phospholipids and protein content of the glucose transport protein GLUT4 (p<0.05). Conclusions: Experiments investigating exercise training and metabolic health should consider nutrient-exercise timing, and exercise performed before versus after nutrient intake (i.e., in the fasted state) may exert beneficial effects on lipid utilisation and reduce postprandial insulinemia.

AB - Context: Pre-exercise nutrient availability alters acute metabolic responses to exercise, which could modulate training responsiveness. Objective: To assess acute and chronic effects of exercise performed before versus after nutrient ingestion on whole-body and intramuscular lipid utilization, and postprandial glucose metabolism. Design: 1) Acute, randomised, crossover design (Acute Study); 2) 6-week, randomised, controlled design (Training Study). Setting: General community. Participants: Men with overweight/obesity (mean±SD, BMI: 30.2±3.5 kgm-2 for Acute Study, 30.9±4.5 kgm-2 for Training Study). Interventions: Moderate-intensity cycling performed before versus after mixed-macronutrient breakfast (Acute Study) or carbohydrate (Training Study) ingestion. Results: Acute Study - exercise before versus after breakfast consumption increased net intramuscular lipid utilization in type I (net change: -3.44±2.63% versus 1.44±4.18% area lipid staining, p < 0.01) and type II fibres (-1.89±2.48% versus 1.83±1.92% area lipid staining, p < 0.05). Training Study - postprandial glycemia was not differentially affected by 6-weeks of exercise training performed before versus after carbohydrate intake (p>0.05). However, postprandial insulinemia was reduced with exercise training performed before, but not after carbohydrate ingestion (p=0.03). This resulted in increased oral glucose insulin sensitivity (25±38 vs -21±32 mLmin-1m-2; p=0.01), associated with increased lipid utilization during exercise (r=0.50, p=0.02). Regular exercise before nutrient provision also augmented remodelling of skeletal muscle phospholipids and protein content of the glucose transport protein GLUT4 (p<0.05). Conclusions: Experiments investigating exercise training and metabolic health should consider nutrient-exercise timing, and exercise performed before versus after nutrient intake (i.e., in the fasted state) may exert beneficial effects on lipid utilisation and reduce postprandial insulinemia.

KW - exercise

KW - glucose

KW - insulin sensitivity

KW - nutrition

KW - metabolism

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