Projects per year
The role of defects in materials is one of the long-standing issues in solid-state chemistry and physics. On one hand, intrinsic ionic disorder involving stoichiometric amounts of lattice vacancies and interstitials is known to form in highly ionic crystals. There is a substantial literature on defect formation and the phenomenological limits of doping in this class of materials; in particular, involving the application of predictive quantum mechanical electronic structure computations. Most wide band gap materials conduct only electrons and few conduct holes, but rarely are both modes of conduction accessible in a single chemical system. The energies of electrons and holes are taken from the vertical ionization potentials and electron affinities; polaronic trapping of carriers is excluded. While the focus here is defect energetics, the atomic and electronic structures have been carefully examined in all cases to ensure physical results were obtained.